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  • Authors: Office for National Statistics, Social Survey Division;

    Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.The Annual Population Survey (APS) is a major survey series, which aims to provide data that can produce reliable estimates at the local authority level. Key topics covered in the survey include education, employment, health and ethnicity. The APS comprises key variables from the Labour Force Survey (LFS), all its associated LFS boosts and the APS boost. The APS aims to provide enhanced annual data for England, covering a target sample of at least 510 economically active persons for each Unitary Authority (UA)/Local Authority District (LAD) and at least 450 in each Greater London Borough. In combination with local LFS boost samples, the survey provides estimates for a range of indicators down to Local Education Authority (LEA) level across the United Kingdom.For further detailed information about methodology, users should consult the Labour Force Survey User Guide, included with the APS documentation. For variable and value labelling and coding frames that are not included either in the data or in the current APS documentation, users are advised to consult the latest versions of the LFS User Guides, which are available from the ONS Labour Force Survey - User Guidance webpages.Occupation data for 2021 and 2022The ONS has identified an issue with the collection of some occupational data in 2021 and 2022 data files in a number of their surveys. While they estimate any impacts will be small overall, this will affect the accuracy of the breakdowns of some detailed (four-digit Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)) occupations, and data derived from them. None of ONS' headline statistics, other than those directly sourced from occupational data, are affected and you can continue to rely on their accuracy. The affected datasets have now been updated. Further information can be found in the ONS article published on 11 July 2023: Revision of miscoded occupational data in the ONS Labour Force Survey, UK: January 2021 to September 2022APS Well-Being DatasetsFrom 2012-2015, the ONS published separate APS datasets aimed at providing initial estimates of subjective well-being, based on the Integrated Household Survey. In 2015 these were discontinued. A separate set of well-being variables and a corresponding weighting variable have been added to the April-March APS person datasets from A11M12 onwards. Further information on the transition can be found in the Personal well-being in the UK: 2015 to 2016 article on the ONS website.APS disability variablesOver time, there have been some updates to disability variables in the APS. An article explaining the quality assurance investigations on these variables that have been conducted so far is available on the ONS Methodology webpage. End User Licence and Secure Access APS dataUsers should note that there are two versions of each APS dataset. One is available under the standard End User Licence (EUL) agreement, and the other is a Secure Access version. The EUL version includes Government Office Region geography, banded age, 3-digit SOC and industry sector for main, second and last job. The Secure Access version contains more detailed variables relating to: age: single year of age, year and month of birth, age completed full-time education and age obtained highest qualification, age of oldest dependent child and age of youngest dependent child family unit and household: including a number of variables concerning the number of dependent children in the family according to their ages, relationship to head of household and relationship to head of family nationality and country of origin geography: including county, unitary/local authority, place of work, Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics 2 (NUTS2) and NUTS3 regions, and whether lives and works in same local authority district health: including main health problem, and current and past health problems education and apprenticeship: including numbers and subjects of various qualifications and variables concerning apprenticeships industry: including industry, industry class and industry group for main, second and last job, and industry made redundant from occupation: including 4-digit Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) for main, second and last job and job made redundant from system variables: including week number when interview took place and number of households at address The Secure Access data have more restrictive access conditions than those made available under the standard EUL. Prospective users will need to gain ONS Accredited Researcher status, complete an extra application form and demonstrate to the data owners exactly why they need access to the additional variables. Users are strongly advised to first obtain the standard EUL version of the data to see if they are sufficient for their research requirements. Lates Edition InformationFor the fourth edition (October 2019), a new version of the data file was deposited, including the 2018 weighting variable and the Northern Ireland boost sample. Main Topics:Topics covered include: household composition and relationships, housing tenure, nationality, ethnicity and residential history, employment and training (including government schemes), workplace and location, job hunting, educational background and qualifications. Many of the variables included in the survey are the same as those in the LFS. Multi-stage stratified random sample Face-to-face interview Telephone interview

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    Other ORP type . 2018
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      Other ORP type . 2018
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  • Authors: Department for Communities and Local Government;

    Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.The English Housing Survey (EHS) is a continuous national survey commissioned by the Ministry of Housing, Community and Local Government (MHCLG) that collects information about people's housing circumstances and the condition and energy efficiency of housing in England. The EHS brings together two previous survey series into a single fieldwork operation: the English House Condition Survey (EHCS) (available from the UK Data Archive under GN 33158) and the Survey of English Housing (SEH) (available under GN 33277). The EHS covers all housing tenures. The information obtained through the survey provides an accurate picture of people living in the dwelling, and their views on housing and their neighbourhoods. The survey is also used to inform the development and monitoring of the Ministry's housing policies. Results from the survey are also used by a wide range of other users including other government departments, local authorities, housing associations, landlords, academics, construction industry professionals, consultants, and the general public. The EHS has a complex multi-stage methodology consisting of two main elements; an initial interview survey of around 12,000 households and a follow-up physical inspection. Some further elements are also periodically included in or derived from the EHS: for 2008 and 2009, a desk-based market valuation was conducted of a sub-sample of 8,000 dwellings (including vacant ones), but this was not carried out from 2010 onwards. A periodic follow-up survey of private landlords and agents (the Private Landlords Survey (PLS)) is conducted using information from the EHS interview survey. Fuel Poverty datasets are also available from 2003, created by the Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC). The EHS interview survey sample formed part of the Integrated Household Survey (IHS) (available from the Archive under GN 33420) from April 2008 to April 2011. During this period the core questions from the IHS formed part of the EHS questionnaire. End User Licence and Special Licence Versions: From 2014 data onwards, the End User Licence (EUL) versions of the EHS will only include derived variables. In addition the number of variables on the new EUL datasets has been reduced and disclosure control increased on certain remaining variables. New Special Licence versions of the EHS will be deposited later in the year, which will be of a similar nature to previous EHS EUL datasets and will include derived and raw datasets. Further information about the EHS and the latest news, reports and tables can be found on the GOV.UK English Housing Survey web pages. The English Housing Survey, 2009: Housing Stock Data is available for all cases where a physical survey has been completed and for occupied cases comprises data from the household interview as well as data from the physical survey and market value survey. For vacant properties only data for the physical survey and market value survey is provided. The data are made available for a two year rolling sample i.e. approximately 16,000 cases together with the appropriate 2-year weights. For example, the first EHS Housing Stock dataset are for ‘2009’ covering the period April 2008 to March 2010. The Housing Stock dataset should be used for any analysis requiring information relating to the physical characteristics and energy efficiency of the housing stock. The variable lists are not displayed for this study. Latest edition information For the third edition (March 2017), a new cavity wall insulation variable wins95x was added to the physical file. This variable was introduced for the latest EHS Headline Report. From the submission of the 2015 EHS, wins95x will replace wins90x; it has been added to EHS physical files from 2007/8 onwards. Main Topics: The EHS survey consists of a number of components. Interview Survey An interview is first conducted with the householder. The interview topics include: household characteristics, satisfaction with the home and the area, disability and adaptations to the home, work done to the property and income details. Physical Survey The interview is followed by a visual inspection of the property, both internally and externally, by a qualified surveyor. Data collected include the number and type of rooms and facilities contained in the property, the condition of a wide range of aspects of the physical structure, details of the heating systems, parking provision, and assessment of neighbourhood quality. Market Value Survey This is a desk-based exercise providing two market valuations for each of the core cases. The first gives the market value of the property in its current condition. The second gives the valuation after necessary repairs were undertaken (if identified from the Physical survey). Valuers also provide information about the housing market in the immediate neighbourhood in which the property is situated. Multi-stage stratified random sample Face-to-face interview House inspection; Surveyor property inspection; Desk-based property valuation

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    Other ORP type . 2011
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      Other ORP type . 2011
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  • Authors: Joint Health Surveys Unit of Social and Community Planning Research and University College London;

    Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.The Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) series was established in 1995. Commissioned by the Scottish Government Health Directorates, the series provides regular information on aspects of the public's health and factors related to health which cannot be obtained from other sources. The SHeS series was designed to:estimate the prevalence of particular health conditions in Scotland;estimate the prevalence of certain risk factors associated with these health conditions and to document the pattern of related health behaviours;look at differences between regions and between subgroups of the population in the extent of their having these particular health conditions or risk factors, and to make comparisons with other national statistics for Scotland and England;monitor trends in the population's health over time;make a major contribution to monitoring progress towards health targets.Each survey in the series includes a set of core questions and measurements (height and weight and, if applicable, blood pressure, waist circumference, urine and saliva samples), plus modules of questions on specific health conditions that vary from year to year. Each year the core sample has also been augmented by an additional boosted sample for children. Since 2008 NHS Health Boards have also had the opportunity to boost the number of adult interviews carried out in their area. The Scottish Government Scottish Health Survey webpages contain further information about the series, including latest news and publications. The 1995 Scottish Health Survey is the first in the series. The survey consisted of a number of core questions and measurements (such as height and weight), plus modules of questions on selected subjects. The specific topic included in the 1995 survey was cardiovascular disease and its associated risk factors.For the fourth edition (October 2018), the variables PSU and Strata were added to the individual file. Main Topics: Physical activity: the questionnaire covers three types of physical activity: occupation, home, and sports and exercise. Two measures of physical activity were used: a frequency-intensity activity level and a maximum intensity level. Attitudes towards taking more exercise are also covered.Eating habits: information on self-reported eating habits was collected for a wide range of food types.Smoking: data on self-reported current and past smoking behaviour, attitudes to stopping smoking, and exposure to other people's tobacco smoke were collected. Levels of the blood analyte serum cotinine are used to validate self-reports of smoking behaviour.Drinking: self-reported levels of weekly alcohol consumption, attitudes to cutting down drinking, problem drinking among 16-17 year olds, and the relationship between the blood analyte gamma gt and reported alcohol consumption are covered.Blood pressure: blood pressure levels for the survey population were measured.Obesity: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist-hip ratio were measured.Respiratory symptoms and lung function tests: data for three common respiratory symptoms - phlegm production, breathlessness and wheezing - were collected. Lung function test results for FEV1, FVC and PEF are contained in the dataset.Blood analytes: total and HDL-cholesterol, fibrinogen, haemoglobin and serum ferritin were analysed as well as vitamins A, C and E, and carotenoids.Cardiovascular disease and its risk factors: the survey contains questions on self-reported cardiovascular disease and related conditions. Data for the main risk factors - obesity, smoking, drinking, raised cholesterol, high blood pressure and lack of physical activity are also present.General health, use of health services, prescibed medicines and dental health: self-reported general health, longstanding illness or disability, and acute sickness in addition to the prevalence of gastroenteritis within the population was measured. Use of a number of health services - GP consultations, inpatient stays and outpatient visits, blood pressure and cholesterol monitoring are also present as are informants' reports of the prescribed medicines they take. Dental health data includes prevalence of false teeth, and dental practices.Psychosocial well-being: emotional well-being using GHQ12 was measured.Accidents: the number and causes of accidents along with their location and the types of injuries incurred are present in the dataset.Standard measures: Edinburgh Claudication questionnaire; Rose Angina questionnaire; blood pressure; body mass index; waist-hip ratio; GHQ12; MRC Respiratory questionnaire (breathlessness, phlegm and wheezing); social class based on Registrar General's Standard Occupational Classification; CAGE questionnaire for problem drinking (16-17 year olds only). Multi-stage stratified random sample

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    Other ORP type . 1998
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      Other ORP type . 1998
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  • Authors: Office for National Statistics, Social and Vital Statistics Division;

    Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.The Opinions and Lifestyle Survey (formerly known as the ONS Opinions Survey or Omnibus) is an omnibus survey that began in 1990, collecting data on a range of subjects commissioned by both the ONS internally and external clients (limited to other government departments, charities, non-profit organisations and academia).Data are collected from one individual aged 16 or over, selected from each sampled private household. Personal data include data on the individual, their family, address, household, income and education, plus responses and opinions on a variety of subjects within commissioned modules. The questionnaire collects timely data for research and policy analysis evaluation on the social impacts of recent topics of national importance, such as the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and the cost of living, on individuals and households in Great Britain. From April 2018 to November 2019, the design of the OPN changed from face-to-face to a mixed-mode design (online first with telephone interviewing where necessary). Mixed-mode collection allows respondents to complete the survey more flexibly and provides a more cost-effective service for customers. In March 2020, the OPN was adapted to become a weekly survey used to collect data on the social impacts of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on the lives of people of Great Britain. These data are held in the Secure Access study, SN 8635, ONS Opinions and Lifestyle Survey, Covid-19 Module, 2020-2022: Secure Access. From August 2021, as coronavirus (COVID-19) restrictions were lifting across Great Britain, the OPN moved to fortnightly data collection, sampling around 5,000 households in each survey wave to ensure the survey remains sustainable. The OPN has since expanded to include questions on other topics of national importance, such as health and the cost of living. For more information about the survey and its methodology, see the ONS OPN Quality and Methodology Information webpage.Secure Access Opinions and Lifestyle Survey dataOther Secure Access OPN data cover modules run at various points from 1997-2019, on Census religion (SN 8078), cervical cancer screening (SN 8080), contact after separation (SN 8089), contraception (SN 8095), disability (SNs 8680 and 8096), general lifestyle (SN 8092), illness and activity (SN 8094), and non-resident parental contact (SN 8093). See Opinions and Lifestyle Survey: Secure Access for details. Main Topics:Each month's questionnaire consists of two elements: core questions, covering demographic information, are asked each month together with non-core questions that vary from month to month. The non-core questions for this month were: Tobacco consumption (Module 210): this module was asked on behalf of HM Revenue and Customs to help estimate the amount of tobacco consumed as cigarettes. Charitable giving (Module 338): this module was asked on behalf of the National Council for Voluntary Organisations and looks at ways people can give to charity. Transport Direct (Module 351): this module was asked on behalf of the Department for Transport which is interested in finding out which travel information services respondents have used and what they think of them. Disability monitoring (Module 363): the Special Licence version of this module is held under SN 6469. Gambling (Module 372): this module was asked on behalf of the HM Revenue and Customs which is interested in collecting information about betting with book-makers, betting exchanges and others taking bets. Multi-stage stratified random sample Face-to-face interview

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    Other ORP type . 2007
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      Other ORP type . 2007
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  • Authors: BMRB, Social Research; Home Office, Research, Development and Statistics Directorate;

    Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.The Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) asks a sole adult, in a random sample of households, about their, or their household's, experience of crime victimisation in the previous 12 months. These are recorded in the victim form data file (VF). A wide range of questions are then asked covering demographics and crime-related subjects such as attitudes to the police and the criminal justice system (CJS) these variables are contained within the non-victim form (NVF) data file. In 2009, the survey was extended to children aged 10-15 years old; one resident of that age range is also selected from the household and asked about their experience of crime, and other related topics. The first set of children's data covered January-December 2009 and is held separately under SN 6601. From 2009-2010, the children's data cover the same period as the adult data and are included with the main study.The CSEW was formerly known as the British Crime Survey (BCS), and has been in existence since 1981. The 1982 and 1988 BCS waves were also conducted in Scotland (data held separately under SNs 4368 and 4599). Since 1993, separate Scottish Crime and Justice Surveys have been conducted. Up to 2001, the BCS was conducted biennially. From April 2001, the Office for National Statistics took over the survey and it became the CSEW. Interviewing was then carried out continually and reported on in financial year cycles. The crime reference period was altered to accommodate this. Further information may be found on the ONS Crime Survey for England and Wales web page and for the previous BCS, from the GOV.UK BCS Methodology web page. Secure Access dataIn addition to the main survey, a series of questions covering drinking behaviour, drug use, self-offending, gangs and personal security, and intimate personal violence (IPV) (including stalking and sexual victimisation) are asked of adults via a laptop-based self-completion module (questions may vary over the years). Children aged 10-15 years also complete a separate self-completion questionnaire. The questionnaires are included in the main documentation, but the data are only available under Secure Access conditions (see SN 7280), not with the main study. In addition, from 2011 onwards, lower-level geographic variables are also available under Secure Access conditions (see SN 7311).New methodology for capping the number of incidents from 2017-18The CSEW datasets available from 2017-18 onwards are based on a new methodology of capping the number of incidents at the 98th percentile. Incidence variables names have remained consistent with previously supplied data but due to the fact they are based on the new 98th percentile cap, and old datasets are not, comparability has been lost with years prior to 2012-2013. More information can be found in the 2017-18 User Guide (see SN 8464) and the article ‘Improving victimisation estimates derived from the Crime Survey for England and Wales’. Variable 'PFA' (Police Force Area): From 2008-2009 onwards, the BCS variable 'PFA' (Police Force Area) is now only available within the associated dataset SN 6368, British Crime Survey, 2008-2009: Special Licence Access, Low-Level Geographic Data, which is subject to restrictive access conditions; see 'Access' section below. 2008-2009 self-completion modules: From October 2016, the self-completion questionnaire modules covering drug use, drinking behaviour, and domestic violence, sexual victimisation and stalking are subject to Controlled data access conditions - see SN 7280.CSEW Historic back series – dataset update (March 2022)From January 2019, all releases of crime statistics using CSEW data adopted a new methodology for measuring repeat victimisation (moving from a cap of 5 in the number of repeat incidents to tracking the 98th percentile value for major crime types). To maintain a consistent approach across historic data, all datasets back to 2001 have been revised to the new methodology. The change affects all incident data and related fields. A “bolt-on” version of the data has been created for the 2001/02 to 2011/12 datasets. This “bolt-on” dataset contains only variables previously supplied impacted by the change in methodology. These datasets can be merged onto the existing BCS NVF and VF datasets. A template ‘merge’ SPSS syntax file is provided, which will need to be adapted for other software formats.For the second edition (March 2022), “bolt-on” datasets for the NVF and VF files, example merge syntax and additional documentation have been added to the study to accommodate the latest CSEW repeat victimisation measurement methodology. See the documentation for further details. Main Topics: The dataset includes information from two sections of the survey, the non-victim form questionnaire and the victim form questionnaire. Data from the adult sample and the young adult boost sample are available as separate files. The non-victim form questionnaire gathers respondent-level data: topics covered include fear of crime; perception of local area; local crime rates; victimisation screener questions; mobile phone theft; experiences of the police; attitudes to the CJS; crime prevention and security; witnessing crime; technology crime; the night-time economy and alcohol disorder; identity fraud; experiences of antisocial behaviour; crime and disorder in town centres and high streets; crime and disorder on public transport; demographic information. The victim form contains offence-level data. Up to six different incidents are asked about for each respondent. Each of these constitutes a separate victim form and can be matched back to the respondent-level data through the variable ROWLABEL. Topics covered include the nature and circumstances of the incident, details of offenders, security measures, costs, emotional reactions, contact with the CJS and outcomes where known. From October 2016, the self-completion questionnaire modules covering drug use, drinking behaviour, and domestic violence, sexual victimisation and stalking are subject to Controlled data access conditions - see SN 7280. Multi-stage stratified random sample Face-to-face interview Self-completion

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    Other ORP type . 2010
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      Other ORP type . 2010
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  • Authors: Office for National Statistics, Social Survey Division;

    Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.The Annual Population Survey (APS) is a major survey series, which aims to provide data that can produce reliable estimates at the local authority level. Key topics covered in the survey include education, employment, health and ethnicity. The APS comprises key variables from the Labour Force Survey (LFS), all its associated LFS boosts and the APS boost. The APS aims to provide enhanced annual data for England, covering a target sample of at least 510 economically active persons for each Unitary Authority (UA)/Local Authority District (LAD) and at least 450 in each Greater London Borough. In combination with local LFS boost samples, the survey provides estimates for a range of indicators down to Local Education Authority (LEA) level across the United Kingdom.For further detailed information about methodology, users should consult the Labour Force Survey User Guide, included with the APS documentation. For variable and value labelling and coding frames that are not included either in the data or in the current APS documentation, users are advised to consult the latest versions of the LFS User Guides, which are available from the ONS Labour Force Survey - User Guidance webpages.Occupation data for 2021 and 2022The ONS has identified an issue with the collection of some occupational data in 2021 and 2022 data files in a number of their surveys. While they estimate any impacts will be small overall, this will affect the accuracy of the breakdowns of some detailed (four-digit Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)) occupations, and data derived from them. None of ONS' headline statistics, other than those directly sourced from occupational data, are affected and you can continue to rely on their accuracy. The affected datasets have now been updated. Further information can be found in the ONS article published on 11 July 2023: Revision of miscoded occupational data in the ONS Labour Force Survey, UK: January 2021 to September 2022APS Well-Being DatasetsFrom 2012-2015, the ONS published separate APS datasets aimed at providing initial estimates of subjective well-being, based on the Integrated Household Survey. In 2015 these were discontinued. A separate set of well-being variables and a corresponding weighting variable have been added to the April-March APS person datasets from A11M12 onwards. Further information on the transition can be found in the Personal well-being in the UK: 2015 to 2016 article on the ONS website.APS disability variablesOver time, there have been some updates to disability variables in the APS. An article explaining the quality assurance investigations on these variables that have been conducted so far is available on the ONS Methodology webpage. End User Licence and Secure Access APS dataUsers should note that there are two versions of each APS dataset. One is available under the standard End User Licence (EUL) agreement, and the other is a Secure Access version. The EUL version includes Government Office Region geography, banded age, 3-digit SOC and industry sector for main, second and last job. The Secure Access version contains more detailed variables relating to: age: single year of age, year and month of birth, age completed full-time education and age obtained highest qualification, age of oldest dependent child and age of youngest dependent child family unit and household: including a number of variables concerning the number of dependent children in the family according to their ages, relationship to head of household and relationship to head of family nationality and country of origin geography: including county, unitary/local authority, place of work, Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics 2 (NUTS2) and NUTS3 regions, and whether lives and works in same local authority district health: including main health problem, and current and past health problems education and apprenticeship: including numbers and subjects of various qualifications and variables concerning apprenticeships industry: including industry, industry class and industry group for main, second and last job, and industry made redundant from occupation: including 4-digit Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) for main, second and last job and job made redundant from system variables: including week number when interview took place and number of households at address The Secure Access data have more restrictive access conditions than those made available under the standard EUL. Prospective users will need to gain ONS Accredited Researcher status, complete an extra application form and demonstrate to the data owners exactly why they need access to the additional variables. Users are strongly advised to first obtain the standard EUL version of the data to see if they are sufficient for their research requirements. Latest edition informationFor the eighth edition (November 2019), a new version of the data file was deposited, with the 2018 person and well-being weighting variables included. Main Topics:Topics covered include: household composition and relationships, housing tenure, nationality, ethnicity and residential history, employment and training (including government schemes), workplace and location, job hunting, educational background and qualifications. Many of the variables included in the survey are the same as those in the LFS. Multi-stage stratified random sample Face-to-face interview Telephone interview

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    Other ORP type . 2014
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      Other ORP type . 2014
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    In October 2021, an international conference was organized by the Andrei Sakharov Research Center under the Patronage of the President of Lithuania Gitanas Nausėda. The subject was the development of diplomatic ties between Lithuania and Russia, which were analyzed from different angles and over different time periods, beginning with the signature of the Treaty on the Foundations of Interstate Relations between Lithuania and Russia in 1991. When Lithuania re-established its independence in March 1990, Russia was still part of the USSR. Diplomatic relations between the two countries took a turning point with the signing of a Treaty on July 29th, 1991. This agreement remains an outstanding example of how international law can be the basis for re-establishing new and productive relations. The Treaty contained the principles that guide relations between Lithuania and Russia: the non-use of force and non-interference in internal affairs; respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, and the inviolability of borders; cooperation in economic fields and other spheres. The Treaty was a significant step forward, particularly considering that the Soviet Union was still in place when it was signed, although Russia was beginning to establish an independent foreign policy. Moreover, in the agreement, Russia publicly acknowledged the violation of Lithuanian borders in 1940 and the illegality of Soviet occupation, a result that no other Baltic country had obtained. The 1991 Treaty was partially the result of developments in international relations between the East and West that followed the signing of the Helsinki Accords in 1975. The negotiations took place in an atmosphere of great excitement and desire for change, and despite some eventual friction, the Russian and Lithuanian people and their leaders demonstrated mutual respect and commitment to the ideals of democracy and freedom. After this historical achievement, positive relations were maintained for some years. However, while Lithuania remained on the path towards democracy and integration in Europe, Russia, unfortunately, regressed to an autocratic regime guided by the authoritarian leader Vladimir Putin. Lithuania was soon faced with a neighbour that was becoming hostile and threatening. Indeed, the annexation of Crimea and the war in the Donbas; the consequences of the political crisis in Belarus; and the negative attitude of the current Russian leadership toward the West continue to demonstrate the Kremlin does not share the respect for international law that prevailed under Boris Yeltsin. Is there any possibility of evolving the present situation? There is always hope, but it would take great commitment on both sides. Putin’s regime appears to off er no prospect for growth or development and therefore any breakthrough in the near future seems unlikely. Outcomes are difficult to predict, however, and one thing seems certain: the Russian population will not always remain passive. As the past has shown, the role of Western democracies, and countries like Lithuania in particular, may stimulate a broader understanding of human rights, civil society, and the rule of law in the region, thus fostering the basis for a new and open dialogue. 2021 m. spalį Andrejaus Sacharovo tyrimų centras surengė tarptautinę konferenciją, kurią globojo LR Prezidentas Gitanas Nausėda. Jos tema - Lietuvos ir Rusijos diplomatinių santykių raida, kuri buvo analizuojama įvairiais aspektais ir skirtingais laikotarpiais, pradedant nuo Lietuvos ir Rusijos sutarties dėl tarpvalstybinių santykių pasirašymo 1991 metais. Kai 1990 m. kovo mėn. Lietuva atkūrė savo nepriklausomybę, Rusija vis dar priklausė SSRS. Diplomatiniai santykiai tarp abiejų šalių pasiekė lūžį, kai 1991 m. liepos 29 d. buvo pasirašyta Sutartis. Ši sutartis tebėra puikus pavyzdys, kaip tarptautinė teisė gali būti pagrindas naujiems ir produktyviems santykiams atkurti. Sutartyje buvo įtvirtinti principai, kuriais grindžiami Lietuvos ir Rusijos santykiai: jėgos nenaudojimas ir nesikišimas į vidaus reikalus; pagarba suverenitetui, teritoriniam vientisumui ir sienų neliečiamumui; bendradarbiavimas ekonomikos ir kitose srityse. Sutartis buvo svarbus žingsnis į priekį, ypač atsižvelgiant į tai, kad jos pasirašymo metu vis dar veikė Sovietų Sąjunga, nors Rusija jau buvo pradėjusi formuoti savarankišką užsienio politiką. Be to, šia sutartimi Rusija viešai pripažino Lietuvos sienų pažeidimą 1940 m. ir sovietų okupacijos neteisėtumą, ko nebuvo pasiekusi nė viena kita Baltijos šalis. 1991 m. sutartį iš dalies lėmė Rytų ir Vakarų tarptautinių santykių pokyčiai, įvykę po 1975 m. Helsinkio susitarimų pasirašymo. Derybos vyko didelio susijaudinimo ir permainų troškimo atmosferoje, ir, nepaisant tam tikros trinties, Rusijos ir Lietuvos žmonės bei jų vadovai parodė abipusę pagarbą ir atsidavimą demokratijos ir laisvės idealams. Po šio istorinio pasiekimo keletą metų buvo palaikomi teigiami santykiai. Tačiau kol Lietuva toliau ėjo demokratijos ir integracijos į Europą keliu, Rusija, deja, grįžo prie autokratinio režimo, kuriam vadovauja autoritarinis lyderis Vladimiras Putinas. Netrukus Lietuva susidūrė su kaimyne, kuri tapo priešiška ir grėsminga. Iš tiesų Krymo aneksija ir karas Ukrainoje, politinės krizės Baltarusijoje padariniai ir neigiamas dabartinės Rusijos vadovybės požiūris į Vakarus ir toliau rodo, kad Kremliui nebūdinga pagarba tarptautinei teisei, kuri vyravo valdant Borisui Jelcinui. Ar yra kokia nors galimybė pakeisti dabartinę padėtį? Visada yra vilties, tačiau tam reikia didelio abiejų pusių įsipareigojimo. Atrodo, kad V. Putino režimas neturi jokių augimo ar vystymosi perspektyvų, todėl bet koks proveržis artimiausiu metu atrodo mažai tikėtinas. Vis dėlto rezultatus sunku prognozuoti, ir viena atrodo aišku: Rusijos gyventojai ne visada liks pasyvūs. Kaip parodė praeitis, Vakarų demokratijų, ypač tokių šalių kaip Lietuva, vaidmuo gali paskatinti platesnį žmogaus teisių, pilietinės visuomenės ir teisinės valstybės supratimą regione ir taip sukurti pagrindą naujam ir atviram dialogui.

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    Authors: Kyle Terrence Appelt;

    Pilgrimage: being in the End Times “The gap between phenomenon and thing yawns open, disturbing my sense of presence of being in the world” –Timothy Morton In 1784 a fine layer of carbon was deposited onto the Earth’s crust as a result of human coal-fired industries. Timothy Morton attributes this moment as the beginning of the Anthropocene: the moment when human history intersects with geological time. What we hear about climate change is that the best efforts we can now imagine may delay its catastrophic effects but will not prevent them. As a person living in the beginning of the 21st century, I exist at the apex of this eschatological narrative, sandwiched tightly between the exposition of species-guilt, and the denouement of species-extinction. Despite the potentially crushing burden of living in a geological era generated by human activity, as well as standing under the teetering shadow of the impending ecological collapse, I find it impossible to panic. At times I even find it impossible to care. Not only am I presented every day with images of the social and ecological clockwork running smoothly, but also running against the familiar background of banality. In an attempt to overcome my phenomenological distance from the looming threat of the ecological crisis, I set out on a secular pilgrimage to create points of contact with my material world. Armed with a multitude of cameras, a vehicle, and a furry mammalian costume, I documented this Pilgrimage, contemplating both the kitsch banality and the incomprehensibility of living in ecological end-times.

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    Authors: Dubois-Dauphin, Quentin; Montagna, Paolo; Siani, Giuseppe; Douville, Eric; +9 Authors

    We present the neodymium isotopic composition (epsilon-Nd) of mixed planktonic foraminifera species from a sediment core collected at 622 m water depth in the Balearic Sea, as well as epsilon-Nd of scleractinian cold-water corals (CWC; Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa) retrieved between 280 and 442 m water depth in the Alboran Sea and at 414 m depth in the southern Sardinian continental margin. The aim is to constrain hydrological variations at intermediate depths in the western Mediterranean Sea during the last 20 kyr. Planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) and benthic (Cibicidoides pachyderma) foraminifera from the Balearic Sea were also analyzed for stable oxygen (d18O) and carbon (d13C) isotopes. The foraminiferal and coral epsilon-Nd values from the Balearic and Alboran seas are comparable over the last ~13 kyr, with mean values of -8.94 ± 0.26 (1 Sigma; n = 24) and -8.91 ± 0.18 (1 Sigma; n = 25), respectively. Before 13 ka BP, the foraminiferal epsilon-Nd values are slightly lower (-9.28 ± 0.15) and tend to reflect higher mixing between intermediate and deep waters, which are characterized by more unradiogenic epsilon-Nd values. The slight epsilon-Nd increase after 13 ka BP is associated with a decoupling in the benthic foraminiferal d13C composition between intermediate and deeper depths, which started at ~16 ka BP. This suggests an earlier stratification of the water masses and a subsequent reduced contribution of unradiogenic epsilon-Nd from deep waters. The CWC from the Sardinia Channel show a much larger scatter of epsilon-Nd values, from -8.66 ± 0.30 to 5.99 ± 0.50, and a lower average (-7.31 ± 0.73; n = 19) compared to the CWC and foraminifera from the Alboran and Balearic seas, indicative of intermediate waters sourced from the Levantine basin. At the time of sapropel S1 deposition (10.2 to 6.4 ka), the epsilon-Nd values of the Sardinian CWC become more unradiogenic (-8.38 ± 0.47; n = 3 at ~8.7 ka BP), suggesting a significant contribution of intermediate waters originated from the western basin. We propose that western Mediterranean intermediate waters replaced the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), and thus there was a strong reduction of the LIW during the mid-sapropel (~8.7 ka BP). This observation supports a notable change of Mediterranean circulation pattern centered on sapropel S1 that needs further investigation to be confirmed.

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  • Authors: Office for National Statistics;

    Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.The Annual Population Survey (APS) is a major survey series, which aims to provide data that can produce reliable estimates at the local authority level. Key topics covered in the survey include education, employment, health and ethnicity. The APS comprises key variables from the Labour Force Survey (LFS), all its associated LFS boosts and the APS boost. The APS aims to provide enhanced annual data for England, covering a target sample of at least 510 economically active persons for each Unitary Authority (UA)/Local Authority District (LAD) and at least 450 in each Greater London Borough. In combination with local LFS boost samples, the survey provides estimates for a range of indicators down to Local Education Authority (LEA) level across the United Kingdom.For further detailed information about methodology, users should consult the Labour Force Survey User Guide, included with the APS documentation. For variable and value labelling and coding frames that are not included either in the data or in the current APS documentation, users are advised to consult the latest versions of the LFS User Guides, which are available from the ONS Labour Force Survey - User Guidance webpages.Occupation data for 2021 and 2022The ONS has identified an issue with the collection of some occupational data in 2021 and 2022 data files in a number of their surveys. While they estimate any impacts will be small overall, this will affect the accuracy of the breakdowns of some detailed (four-digit Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)) occupations, and data derived from them. None of ONS' headline statistics, other than those directly sourced from occupational data, are affected and you can continue to rely on their accuracy. The affected datasets have now been updated. Further information can be found in the ONS article published on 11 July 2023: Revision of miscoded occupational data in the ONS Labour Force Survey, UK: January 2021 to September 2022APS Well-Being DatasetsFrom 2012-2015, the ONS published separate APS datasets aimed at providing initial estimates of subjective well-being, based on the Integrated Household Survey. In 2015 these were discontinued. A separate set of well-being variables and a corresponding weighting variable have been added to the April-March APS person datasets from A11M12 onwards. Further information on the transition can be found in the Personal well-being in the UK: 2015 to 2016 article on the ONS website.APS disability variablesOver time, there have been some updates to disability variables in the APS. An article explaining the quality assurance investigations on these variables that have been conducted so far is available on the ONS Methodology webpage. End User Licence and Secure Access APS dataUsers should note that there are two versions of each APS dataset. One is available under the standard End User Licence (EUL) agreement, and the other is a Secure Access version. The EUL version includes Government Office Region geography, banded age, 3-digit SOC and industry sector for main, second and last job. The Secure Access version contains more detailed variables relating to: age: single year of age, year and month of birth, age completed full-time education and age obtained highest qualification, age of oldest dependent child and age of youngest dependent child family unit and household: including a number of variables concerning the number of dependent children in the family according to their ages, relationship to head of household and relationship to head of family nationality and country of origin geography: including county, unitary/local authority, place of work, Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics 2 (NUTS2) and NUTS3 regions, and whether lives and works in same local authority district health: including main health problem, and current and past health problems education and apprenticeship: including numbers and subjects of various qualifications and variables concerning apprenticeships industry: including industry, industry class and industry group for main, second and last job, and industry made redundant from occupation: including 4-digit Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) for main, second and last job and job made redundant from system variables: including week number when interview took place and number of households at address The Secure Access data have more restrictive access conditions than those made available under the standard EUL. Prospective users will need to gain ONS Accredited Researcher status, complete an extra application form and demonstrate to the data owners exactly why they need access to the additional variables. Users are strongly advised to first obtain the standard EUL version of the data to see if they are sufficient for their research requirements. For the third edition (July 2022), the qualification variable QULNOW has been added to the data file. Main Topics:Topics covered include: household composition and relationships, housing tenure, nationality, ethnicity and residential history, employment and training (including government schemes), workplace and location, job hunting, educational background and qualifications. Many of the variables included in the survey are the same as those in the LFS. Multi-stage stratified random sample Face-to-face interview Telephone interview

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  • Authors: Office for National Statistics, Social Survey Division;

    Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.The Annual Population Survey (APS) is a major survey series, which aims to provide data that can produce reliable estimates at the local authority level. Key topics covered in the survey include education, employment, health and ethnicity. The APS comprises key variables from the Labour Force Survey (LFS), all its associated LFS boosts and the APS boost. The APS aims to provide enhanced annual data for England, covering a target sample of at least 510 economically active persons for each Unitary Authority (UA)/Local Authority District (LAD) and at least 450 in each Greater London Borough. In combination with local LFS boost samples, the survey provides estimates for a range of indicators down to Local Education Authority (LEA) level across the United Kingdom.For further detailed information about methodology, users should consult the Labour Force Survey User Guide, included with the APS documentation. For variable and value labelling and coding frames that are not included either in the data or in the current APS documentation, users are advised to consult the latest versions of the LFS User Guides, which are available from the ONS Labour Force Survey - User Guidance webpages.Occupation data for 2021 and 2022The ONS has identified an issue with the collection of some occupational data in 2021 and 2022 data files in a number of their surveys. While they estimate any impacts will be small overall, this will affect the accuracy of the breakdowns of some detailed (four-digit Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)) occupations, and data derived from them. None of ONS' headline statistics, other than those directly sourced from occupational data, are affected and you can continue to rely on their accuracy. The affected datasets have now been updated. Further information can be found in the ONS article published on 11 July 2023: Revision of miscoded occupational data in the ONS Labour Force Survey, UK: January 2021 to September 2022APS Well-Being DatasetsFrom 2012-2015, the ONS published separate APS datasets aimed at providing initial estimates of subjective well-being, based on the Integrated Household Survey. In 2015 these were discontinued. A separate set of well-being variables and a corresponding weighting variable have been added to the April-March APS person datasets from A11M12 onwards. Further information on the transition can be found in the Personal well-being in the UK: 2015 to 2016 article on the ONS website.APS disability variablesOver time, there have been some updates to disability variables in the APS. An article explaining the quality assurance investigations on these variables that have been conducted so far is available on the ONS Methodology webpage. End User Licence and Secure Access APS dataUsers should note that there are two versions of each APS dataset. One is available under the standard End User Licence (EUL) agreement, and the other is a Secure Access version. The EUL version includes Government Office Region geography, banded age, 3-digit SOC and industry sector for main, second and last job. The Secure Access version contains more detailed variables relating to: age: single year of age, year and month of birth, age completed full-time education and age obtained highest qualification, age of oldest dependent child and age of youngest dependent child family unit and household: including a number of variables concerning the number of dependent children in the family according to their ages, relationship to head of household and relationship to head of family nationality and country of origin geography: including county, unitary/local authority, place of work, Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics 2 (NUTS2) and NUTS3 regions, and whether lives and works in same local authority district health: including main health problem, and current and past health problems education and apprenticeship: including numbers and subjects of various qualifications and variables concerning apprenticeships industry: including industry, industry class and industry group for main, second and last job, and industry made redundant from occupation: including 4-digit Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) for main, second and last job and job made redundant from system variables: including week number when interview took place and number of households at address The Secure Access data have more restrictive access conditions than those made available under the standard EUL. Prospective users will need to gain ONS Accredited Researcher status, complete an extra application form and demonstrate to the data owners exactly why they need access to the additional variables. Users are strongly advised to first obtain the standard EUL version of the data to see if they are sufficient for their research requirements. Lates Edition InformationFor the fourth edition (October 2019), a new version of the data file was deposited, including the 2018 weighting variable and the Northern Ireland boost sample. Main Topics:Topics covered include: household composition and relationships, housing tenure, nationality, ethnicity and residential history, employment and training (including government schemes), workplace and location, job hunting, educational background and qualifications. Many of the variables included in the survey are the same as those in the LFS. Multi-stage stratified random sample Face-to-face interview Telephone interview

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  • Authors: Department for Communities and Local Government;

    Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.The English Housing Survey (EHS) is a continuous national survey commissioned by the Ministry of Housing, Community and Local Government (MHCLG) that collects information about people's housing circumstances and the condition and energy efficiency of housing in England. The EHS brings together two previous survey series into a single fieldwork operation: the English House Condition Survey (EHCS) (available from the UK Data Archive under GN 33158) and the Survey of English Housing (SEH) (available under GN 33277). The EHS covers all housing tenures. The information obtained through the survey provides an accurate picture of people living in the dwelling, and their views on housing and their neighbourhoods. The survey is also used to inform the development and monitoring of the Ministry's housing policies. Results from the survey are also used by a wide range of other users including other government departments, local authorities, housing associations, landlords, academics, construction industry professionals, consultants, and the general public. The EHS has a complex multi-stage methodology consisting of two main elements; an initial interview survey of around 12,000 households and a follow-up physical inspection. Some further elements are also periodically included in or derived from the EHS: for 2008 and 2009, a desk-based market valuation was conducted of a sub-sample of 8,000 dwellings (including vacant ones), but this was not carried out from 2010 onwards. A periodic follow-up survey of private landlords and agents (the Private Landlords Survey (PLS)) is conducted using information from the EHS interview survey. Fuel Poverty datasets are also available from 2003, created by the Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC). The EHS interview survey sample formed part of the Integrated Household Survey (IHS) (available from the Archive under GN 33420) from April 2008 to April 2011. During this period the core questions from the IHS formed part of the EHS questionnaire. End User Licence and Special Licence Versions: From 2014 data onwards, the End User Licence (EUL) versions of the EHS will only include derived variables. In addition the number of variables on the new EUL datasets has been reduced and disclosure control increased on certain remaining variables. New Special Licence versions of the EHS will be deposited later in the year, which will be of a similar nature to previous EHS EUL datasets and will include derived and raw datasets. Further information about the EHS and the latest news, reports and tables can be found on the GOV.UK English Housing Survey web pages. The English Housing Survey, 2009: Housing Stock Data is available for all cases where a physical survey has been completed and for occupied cases comprises data from the household interview as well as data from the physical survey and market value survey. For vacant properties only data for the physical survey and market value survey is provided. The data are made available for a two year rolling sample i.e. approximately 16,000 cases together with the appropriate 2-year weights. For example, the first EHS Housing Stock dataset are for ‘2009’ covering the period April 2008 to March 2010. The Housing Stock dataset should be used for any analysis requiring information relating to the physical characteristics and energy efficiency of the housing stock. The variable lists are not displayed for this study. Latest edition information For the third edition (March 2017), a new cavity wall insulation variable wins95x was added to the physical file. This variable was introduced for the latest EHS Headline Report. From the submission of the 2015 EHS, wins95x will replace wins90x; it has been added to EHS physical files from 2007/8 onwards. Main Topics: The EHS survey consists of a number of components. Interview Survey An interview is first conducted with the householder. The interview topics include: household characteristics, satisfaction with the home and the area, disability and adaptations to the home, work done to the property and income details. Physical Survey The interview is followed by a visual inspection of the property, both internally and externally, by a qualified surveyor. Data collected include the number and type of rooms and facilities contained in the property, the condition of a wide range of aspects of the physical structure, details of the heating systems, parking provision, and assessment of neighbourhood quality. Market Value Survey This is a desk-based exercise providing two market valuations for each of the core cases. The first gives the market value of the property in its current condition. The second gives the valuation after necessary repairs were undertaken (if identified from the Physical survey). Valuers also provide information about the housing market in the immediate neighbourhood in which the property is situated. Multi-stage stratified random sample Face-to-face interview House inspection; Surveyor property inspection; Desk-based property valuation

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  • Authors: Joint Health Surveys Unit of Social and Community Planning Research and University College London;

    Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.The Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) series was established in 1995. Commissioned by the Scottish Government Health Directorates, the series provides regular information on aspects of the public's health and factors related to health which cannot be obtained from other sources. The SHeS series was designed to:estimate the prevalence of particular health conditions in Scotland;estimate the prevalence of certain risk factors associated with these health conditions and to document the pattern of related health behaviours;look at differences between regions and between subgroups of the population in the extent of their having these particular health conditions or risk factors, and to make comparisons with other national statistics for Scotland and England;monitor trends in the population's health over time;make a major contribution to monitoring progress towards health targets.Each survey in the series includes a set of core questions and measurements (height and weight and, if applicable, blood pressure, waist circumference, urine and saliva samples), plus modules of questions on specific health conditions that vary from year to year. Each year the core sample has also been augmented by an additional boosted sample for children. Since 2008 NHS Health Boards have also had the opportunity to boost the number of adult interviews carried out in their area. The Scottish Government Scottish Health Survey webpages contain further information about the series, including latest news and publications. The 1995 Scottish Health Survey is the first in the series. The survey consisted of a number of core questions and measurements (such as height and weight), plus modules of questions on selected subjects. The specific topic included in the 1995 survey was cardiovascular disease and its associated risk factors.For the fourth edition (October 2018), the variables PSU and Strata were added to the individual file. Main Topics: Physical activity: the questionnaire covers three types of physical activity: occupation, home, and sports and exercise. Two measures of physical activity were used: a frequency-intensity activity level and a maximum intensity level. Attitudes towards taking more exercise are also covered.Eating habits: information on self-reported eating habits was collected for a wide range of food types.Smoking: data on self-reported current and past smoking behaviour, attitudes to stopping smoking, and exposure to other people's tobacco smoke were collected. Levels of the blood analyte serum cotinine are used to validate self-reports of smoking behaviour.Drinking: self-reported levels of weekly alcohol consumption, attitudes to cutting down drinking, problem drinking among 16-17 year olds, and the relationship between the blood analyte gamma gt and reported alcohol consumption are covered.Blood pressure: blood pressure levels for the survey population were measured.Obesity: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist-hip ratio were measured.Respiratory symptoms and lung function tests: data for three common respiratory symptoms - phlegm production, breathlessness and wheezing - were collected. Lung function test results for FEV1, FVC and PEF are contained in the dataset.Blood analytes: total and HDL-cholesterol, fibrinogen, haemoglobin and serum ferritin were analysed as well as vitamins A, C and E, and carotenoids.Cardiovascular disease and its risk factors: the survey contains questions on self-reported cardiovascular disease and related conditions. Data for the main risk factors - obesity, smoking, drinking, raised cholesterol, high blood pressure and lack of physical activity are also present.General health, use of health services, prescibed medicines and dental health: self-reported general health, longstanding illness or disability, and acute sickness in addition to the prevalence of gastroenteritis within the population was measured. Use of a number of health services - GP consultations, inpatient stays and outpatient visits, blood pressure and cholesterol monitoring are also present as are informants' reports of the prescribed medicines they take. Dental health data includes prevalence of false teeth, and dental practices.Psychosocial well-being: emotional well-being using GHQ12 was measured.Accidents: the number and causes of accidents along with their location and the types of injuries incurred are present in the dataset.Standard measures: Edinburgh Claudication questionnaire; Rose Angina questionnaire; blood pressure; body mass index; waist-hip ratio; GHQ12; MRC Respiratory questionnaire (breathlessness, phlegm and wheezing); social class based on Registrar General's Standard Occupational Classification; CAGE questionnaire for problem drinking (16-17 year olds only). Multi-stage stratified random sample

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    Other ORP type . 1998
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  • Authors: Office for National Statistics, Social and Vital Statistics Division;

    Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.The Opinions and Lifestyle Survey (formerly known as the ONS Opinions Survey or Omnibus) is an omnibus survey that began in 1990, collecting data on a range of subjects commissioned by both the ONS internally and external clients (limited to other government departments, charities, non-profit organisations and academia).Data are collected from one individual aged 16 or over, selected from each sampled private household. Personal data include data on the individual, their family, address, household, income and education, plus responses and opinions on a variety of subjects within commissioned modules. The questionnaire collects timely data for research and policy analysis evaluation on the social impacts of recent topics of national importance, such as the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and the cost of living, on individuals and households in Great Britain. From April 2018 to November 2019, the design of the OPN changed from face-to-face to a mixed-mode design (online first with telephone interviewing where necessary). Mixed-mode collection allows respondents to complete the survey more flexibly and provides a more cost-effective service for customers. In March 2020, the OPN was adapted to become a weekly survey used to collect data on the social impacts of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on the lives of people of Great Britain. These data are held in the Secure Access study, SN 8635, ONS Opinions and Lifestyle Survey, Covid-19 Module, 2020-2022: Secure Access. From August 2021, as coronavirus (COVID-19) restrictions were lifting across Great Britain, the OPN moved to fortnightly data collection, sampling around 5,000 households in each survey wave to ensure the survey remains sustainable. The OPN has since expanded to include questions on other topics of national importance, such as health and the cost of living. For more information about the survey and its methodology, see the ONS OPN Quality and Methodology Information webpage.Secure Access Opinions and Lifestyle Survey dataOther Secure Access OPN data cover modules run at various points from 1997-2019, on Census religion (SN 8078), cervical cancer screening (SN 8080), contact after separation (SN 8089), contraception (SN 8095), disability (SNs 8680 and 8096), general lifestyle (SN 8092), illness and activity (SN 8094), and non-resident parental contact (SN 8093). See Opinions and Lifestyle Survey: Secure Access for details. Main Topics:Each month's questionnaire consists of two elements: core questions, covering demographic information, are asked each month together with non-core questions that vary from month to month. The non-core questions for this month were: Tobacco consumption (Module 210): this module was asked on behalf of HM Revenue and Customs to help estimate the amount of tobacco consumed as cigarettes. Charitable giving (Module 338): this module was asked on behalf of the National Council for Voluntary Organisations and looks at ways people can give to charity. Transport Direct (Module 351): this module was asked on behalf of the Department for Transport which is interested in finding out which travel information services respondents have used and what they think of them. Disability monitoring (Module 363): the Special Licence version of this module is held under SN 6469. Gambling (Module 372): this module was asked on behalf of the HM Revenue and Customs which is interested in collecting information about betting with book-makers, betting exchanges and others taking bets. Multi-stage stratified random sample Face-to-face interview

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    Other ORP type . 2007
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  • Authors: BMRB, Social Research; Home Office, Research, Development and Statistics Directorate;

    Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.The Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) asks a sole adult, in a random sample of households, about their, or their household's, experience of crime victimisation in the previous 12 months. These are recorded in the victim form data file (VF). A wide range of questions are then asked covering demographics and crime-related subjects such as attitudes to the police and the criminal justice system (CJS) these variables are contained within the non-victim form (NVF) data file. In 2009, the survey was extended to children aged 10-15 years old; one resident of that age range is also selected from the household and asked about their experience of crime, and other related topics. The first set of children's data covered January-December 2009 and is held separately under SN 6601. From 2009-2010, the children's data cover the same period as the adult data and are included with the main study.The CSEW was formerly known as the British Crime Survey (BCS), and has been in existence since 1981. The 1982 and 1988 BCS waves were also conducted in Scotland (data held separately under SNs 4368 and 4599). Since 1993, separate Scottish Crime and Justice Surveys have been conducted. Up to 2001, the BCS was conducted biennially. From April 2001, the Office for National Statistics took over the survey and it became the CSEW. Interviewing was then carried out continually and reported on in financial year cycles. The crime reference period was altered to accommodate this. Further information may be found on the ONS Crime Survey for England and Wales web page and for the previous BCS, from the GOV.UK BCS Methodology web page. Secure Access dataIn addition to the main survey, a series of questions covering drinking behaviour, drug use, self-offending, gangs and personal security, and intimate personal violence (IPV) (including stalking and sexual victimisation) are asked of adults via a laptop-based self-completion module (questions may vary over the years). Children aged 10-15 years also complete a separate self-completion questionnaire. The questionnaires are included in the main documentation, but the data are only available under Secure Access conditions (see SN 7280), not with the main study. In addition, from 2011 onwards, lower-level geographic variables are also available under Secure Access conditions (see SN 7311).New methodology for capping the number of incidents from 2017-18The CSEW datasets available from 2017-18 onwards are based on a new methodology of capping the number of incidents at the 98th percentile. Incidence variables names have remained consistent with previously supplied data but due to the fact they are based on the new 98th percentile cap, and old datasets are not, comparability has been lost with years prior to 2012-2013. More information can be found in the 2017-18 User Guide (see SN 8464) and the article ‘Improving victimisation estimates derived from the Crime Survey for England and Wales’. Variable 'PFA' (Police Force Area): From 2008-2009 onwards, the BCS variable 'PFA' (Police Force Area) is now only available within the associated dataset SN 6368, British Crime Survey, 2008-2009: Special Licence Access, Low-Level Geographic Data, which is subject to restrictive access conditions; see 'Access' section below. 2008-2009 self-completion modules: From October 2016, the self-completion questionnaire modules covering drug use, drinking behaviour, and domestic violence, sexual victimisation and stalking are subject to Controlled data access conditions - see SN 7280.CSEW Historic back series – dataset update (March 2022)From January 2019, all releases of crime statistics using CSEW data adopted a new methodology for measuring repeat victimisation (moving from a cap of 5 in the number of repeat incidents to tracking the 98th percentile value for major crime types). To maintain a consistent approach across historic data, all datasets back to 2001 have been revised to the new methodology. The change affects all incident data and related fields. A “bolt-on” version of the data has been created for the 2001/02 to 2011/12 datasets. This “bolt-on” dataset contains only variables previously supplied impacted by the change in methodology. These datasets can be merged onto the existing BCS NVF and VF datasets. A template ‘merge’ SPSS syntax file is provided, which will need to be adapted for other software formats.For the second edition (March 2022), “bolt-on” datasets for the NVF and VF files, example merge syntax and additional documentation have been added to the study to accommodate the latest CSEW repeat victimisation measurement methodology. See the documentation for further details. Main Topics: The dataset includes information from two sections of the survey, the non-victim form questionnaire and the victim form questionnaire. Data from the adult sample and the young adult boost sample are available as separate files. The non-victim form questionnaire gathers respondent-level data: topics covered include fear of crime; perception of local area; local crime rates; victimisation screener questions; mobile phone theft; experiences of the police; attitudes to the CJS; crime prevention and security; witnessing crime; technology crime; the night-time economy and alcohol disorder; identity fraud; experiences of antisocial behaviour; crime and disorder in town centres and high streets; crime and disorder on public transport; demographic information. The victim form contains offence-level data. Up to six different incidents are asked about for each respondent. Each of these constitutes a separate victim form and can be matched back to the respondent-level data through the variable ROWLABEL. Topics covered include the nature and circumstances of the incident, details of offenders, security measures, costs, emotional reactions, contact with the CJS and outcomes where known. From October 2016, the self-completion questionnaire modules covering drug use, drinking behaviour, and domestic violence, sexual victimisation and stalking are subject to Controlled data access conditions - see SN 7280. Multi-stage stratified random sample Face-to-face interview Self-completion

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    Other ORP type . 2010
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  • Authors: Office for National Statistics, Social Survey Division;

    Abstract copyright UK Data Service and data collection copyright owner.The Annual Population Survey (APS) is a major survey series, which aims to provide data that can produce reliable estimates at the local authority level. Key topics covered in the survey include education, employment, health and ethnicity. The APS comprises key variables from the Labour Force Survey (LFS), all its associated LFS boosts and the APS boost. The APS aims to provide enhanced annual data for England, covering a target sample of at least 510 economically active persons for each Unitary Authority (UA)/Local Authority District (LAD) and at least 450 in each Greater London Borough. In combination with local LFS boost samples, the survey provides estimates for a range of indicators down to Local Education Authority (LEA) level across the United Kingdom.For further detailed information about methodology, users should consult the Labour Force Survey User Guide, included with the APS documentation. For variable and value labelling and coding frames that are not included either in the data or in the current APS documentation, users are advised to consult the latest versions of the LFS User Guides, which are available from the ONS Labour Force Survey - User Guidance webpages.Occupation data for 2021 and 2022The ONS has identified an issue with the collection of some occupational data in 2021 and 2022 data files in a number of their surveys. While they estimate any impacts will be small overall, this will affect the accuracy of the breakdowns of some detailed (four-digit Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)) occupations, and data derived from them. None of ONS' headline statistics, other than those directly sourced from occupational data, are affected and you can continue to rely on their accuracy. The affected datasets have now been updated. Further information can be found in the ONS article published on 11 July 2023: Revision of miscoded occupational data in the ONS Labour Force Survey, UK: January 2021 to September 2022APS Well-Being DatasetsFrom 2012-2015, the ONS published separate APS datasets aimed at providing initial estimates of subjective well-being, based on the Integrated Household Survey. In 2015 these were discontinued. A separate set of well-being variables and a corresponding weighting variable have been added to the April-March APS person datasets from A11M12 onwards. Further information on the transition can be found in the Personal well-being in the UK: 2015 to 2016 article on the ONS website.APS disability variablesOver time, there have been some updates to disability variables in the APS. An article explaining the quality assurance investigations on these variables that have been conducted so far is available on the ONS Methodology webpage. End User Licence and Secure Access APS dataUsers should note that there are two versions of each APS dataset. One is available under the standard End User Licence (EUL) agreement, and the other is a Secure Access version. The EUL version includes Government Office Region geography, banded age, 3-digit SOC and industry sector for main, second and last job. The Secure Access version contains more detailed variables relating to: age: single year of age, year and month of birth, age completed full-time education and age obtained highest qualification, age of oldest dependent child and age of youngest dependent child family unit and household: including a number of variables concerning the number of dependent children in the family according to their ages, relationship to head of household and relationship to head of family nationality and country of origin geography: including county, unitary/local authority, place of work, Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics 2 (NUTS2) and NUTS3 regions, and whether lives and works in same local authority district health: including main health problem, and current and past health problems education and apprenticeship: including numbers and subjects of various qualifications and variables concerning apprenticeships industry: including industry, industry class and industry group for main, second and last job, and industry made redundant from occupation: including 4-digit Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) for main, second and last job and job made redundant from system variables: including week number when interview took place and number of households at address The Secure Access data have more restrictive access conditions than those made available under the standard EUL. Prospective users will need to gain ONS Accredited Researcher status, complete an extra application form and demonstrate to the data owners exactly why they need access to the additional variables. Users are strongly advised to first obtain the standard EUL version of the data to see if they are sufficient for their research requirements. Latest edition informationFor the eighth edition (November 2019), a new version of the data file was deposited, with the 2018 person and well-being weighting variables included. Main Topics:Topics covered include: household composition and relationships, housing tenure, nationality, ethnicity and residential history, employment and training (including government schemes), workplace and location, job hunting, educational background and qualifications. Many of the variables included in the survey are the same as those in the LFS. Multi-stage stratified random sample Face-to-face interview Telephone interview

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    Other ORP type . 2014
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    In October 2021, an international conference was organized by the Andrei Sakharov Research Center under the Patronage of the President of Lithuania Gitanas Nausėda. The subject was the development of diplomatic ties between Lithuania and Russia, which were analyzed from different angles and over different time periods, beginning with the signature of the Treaty on the Foundations of Interstate Relations between Lithuania and Russia in 1991. When Lithuania re-established its independence in March 1990, Russia was still part of the USSR. Diplomatic relations between the two countries took a turning point with the signing of a Treaty on July 29th, 1991. This agreement remains an outstanding example of how international law can be the basis for re-establishing new and productive relations. The Treaty contained the principles that guide relations between Lithuania and Russia: the non-use of force and non-interference in internal affairs; respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, and the inviolability of borders; cooperation in economic fields and other spheres. The Treaty was a significant step forward, particularly considering that the Soviet Union was still in place when it was signed, although Russia was beginning to establish an independent foreign policy. Moreover, in the agreement, Russia publicly acknowledged the violation of Lithuanian borders in 1940 and the illegality of Soviet occupation, a result that no other Baltic country had obtained. The 1991 Treaty was partially the result of developments in international relations between the East and West that followed the signing of the Helsinki Accords in 1975. The negotiations took place in an atmosphere of great excitement and desire for change, and despite some eventual friction, the Russian and Lithuanian people and their leaders demonstrated mutual respect and commitment to the ideals of democracy and freedom. After this historical achievement, positive relations were maintained for some years. However, while Lithuania remained on the path towards democracy and integration in Europe, Russia, unfortunately, regressed to an autocratic regime guided by the authoritarian leader Vladimir Putin. Lithuania was soon faced with a neighbour that was becoming hostile and threatening. Indeed, the annexation of Crimea and the war in the Donbas; the consequences of the political crisis in Belarus; and the negative attitude of the current Russian leadership toward the West continue to demonstrate the Kremlin does not share the respect for international law that prevailed under Boris Yeltsin. Is there any possibility of evolving the present situation? There is always hope, but it would take great commitment on both sides. Putin’s regime appears to off er no prospect for growth or development and therefore any breakthrough in the near future seems unlikely. Outcomes are difficult to predict, however, and one thing seems certain: the Russian population will not always remain passive. As the past has shown, the role of Western democracies, and countries like Lithuania in particular, may stimulate a broader understanding of human rights, civil society, and the rule of law in the region, thus fostering the basis for a new and open dialogue. 2021 m. spalį Andrejaus Sacharovo tyrimų centras surengė tarptautinę konferenciją, kurią globojo LR Prezidentas Gitanas Nausėda. Jos tema - Lietuvos ir Rusijos diplomatinių santykių raida, kuri buvo analizuojama įvairiais aspektais ir skirtingais laikotarpiais, pradedant nuo Lietuvos ir Rusijos sutarties dėl tarpvalstybinių santykių pasirašymo 1991 metais. Kai 1990 m. kovo mėn. Lietuva atkūrė savo nepriklausomybę, Rusija vis dar priklausė SSRS. Diplomatiniai santykiai tarp abiejų šalių pasiekė lūžį, kai 1991 m. liepos 29 d. buvo pasirašyta Sutartis. Ši sutartis tebėra puikus pavyzdys, kaip tarptautinė teisė gali būti pagrindas naujiems ir produktyviems santykiams atkurti. Sutartyje buvo įtvirtinti principai, kuriais grindžiami Lietuvos ir Rusijos santykiai: jėgos nenaudojimas ir nesikišimas į vidaus reikalus; pagarba suverenitetui, teritoriniam vientisumui ir sienų neliečiamumui; bendradarbiavimas ekonomikos ir kitose srityse. Sutartis buvo svarbus žingsnis į priekį, ypač atsižvelgiant į tai, kad jos pasirašymo metu vis dar veikė Sovietų Sąjunga, nors Rusija jau buvo pradėjusi formuoti savarankišką užsienio politiką. Be to, šia sutartimi Rusija viešai pripažino Lietuvos sienų pažeidimą 1940 m. ir sovietų okupacijos neteisėtumą, ko nebuvo pasiekusi nė viena kita Baltijos šalis. 1991 m. sutartį iš dalies lėmė Rytų ir Vakarų tarptautinių santykių pokyčiai, įvykę po 1975 m. Helsinkio susitarimų pasirašymo. Derybos vyko didelio susijaudinimo ir permainų troškimo atmosferoje, ir, nepaisant tam tikros trinties, Rusijos ir Lietuvos žmonės bei jų vadovai parodė abipusę pagarbą ir atsidavimą demokratijos ir laisvės idealams. Po šio istorinio pasiekimo keletą metų buvo palaikomi teigiami santykiai. Tačiau kol Lietuva toliau ėjo demokratijos ir integracijos į Europą keliu, Rusija, deja, grįžo prie autokratinio režimo, kuriam vadovauja autoritarinis lyderis Vladimiras Putinas. Netrukus Lietuva susidūrė su kaimyne, kuri tapo priešiška ir grėsminga. Iš tiesų Krymo aneksija ir karas Ukrainoje, politinės krizės Baltarusijoje padariniai ir neigiamas dabartinės Rusijos vadovybės požiūris į Vakarus ir toliau rodo, kad Kremliui nebūdinga pagarba tarptautinei teisei, kuri vyravo valdant Borisui Jelcinui. Ar yra kokia nors galimybė pakeisti dabartinę padėtį? Visada yra vilties, tačiau tam reikia didelio abiejų pusių įsipareigojimo. Atrodo, kad V. Putino režimas neturi jokių augimo ar vystymosi perspektyvų, todėl bet koks proveržis artimiausiu metu atrodo mažai tikėtinas. Vis dėlto rezultatus sunku prognozuoti, ir viena atrodo aišku: Rusijos gyventojai ne visada liks pasyvūs. Kaip parodė praeitis, Vakarų demokratijų, ypač tokių šalių kaip Lietuva, vaidmuo gali paskatinti platesnį žmogaus teisių, pilietinės visuomenės ir teisinės valstybės supratimą regione ir taip sukurti pagrindą naujam ir atviram dialogui.

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    Authors: Kyle Terrence Appelt;

    Pilgrimage: being in the End Times “The gap between phenomenon and thing yawns open, disturbing my sense of presence of being in the world” –Timothy Morton In 1784 a fine layer of carbon was deposited onto the Earth’s crust as a result of human coal-fired industries. Timothy Morton attributes this moment as the beginning of the Anthropocene: the moment when human history intersects with geological time. What we hear about climate change is that the best efforts we can now imagine may delay its catastrophic effects but will not prevent them. As a person living in the beginning of the 21st century, I exist at the apex of this eschatological narrative, sandwiched tightly between the exposition of species-guilt, and the denouement of species-extinction. Despite the potentially crushing burden of living in a geological era generated by human activity, as well as standing under the teetering shadow of the impending ecological collapse, I find it impossible to panic. At times I even find it impossible to care. Not only am I presented every day with images of the social and ecological clockwork running smoothly, but also running against the familiar background of banality. In an attempt to overcome my phenomenological distance from the looming threat of the ecological crisis, I set out on a secular pilgrimage to create points of contact with my material world. Armed with a multitude of cameras, a vehicle, and a furry mammalian costume, I documented this Pilgrimage, contemplating both the kitsch banality and the incomprehensibility of living in ecological end-times.

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    Authors: Dubois-Dauphin, Quentin; Montagna, Paolo; Siani, Giuseppe; Douville, Eric; +9 Authors

    We present the neodymium isotopic composition (epsilon-Nd) of mixed planktonic foraminifera species from a sediment core collected at 622 m water depth in the Balearic Sea, as well as epsilon-Nd of scleractinian cold-water corals (CWC; Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa) retrieved between 280 and 442 m water depth in the Alboran Sea and at 414 m depth in the southern Sardinian continental margin. The aim is to constrain hydrological variations at intermediate depths in the western Mediterranean Sea during the last 20 kyr. Planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) and benthic (Cibicidoides pachyderma) foraminifera from the Balearic Sea were also analyzed for stable oxygen (d18O) and carbon (d13C) isotopes. The foraminiferal and coral epsilon-Nd values from the Balearic and Alboran seas are comparable over the last ~13 kyr, with mean values of -8.94 ± 0.26 (1 Sigma; n = 24) and -8.91 ± 0.18 (1 Sigma; n = 25), respectively. Before 13 ka BP, the foraminiferal epsilon-Nd values are slightly lower (-9.28 ± 0.15) and tend to reflect higher mixing between intermediate and deep waters, which are characterized by more unradiogenic epsilon-Nd values. The slight epsilon-Nd increase after 13 ka BP is associated with a decoupling in the benthic foraminiferal d13C composition between intermediate and deeper depths, which started at ~16 ka BP. This suggests an earlier stratification of the water masses and a subsequent reduced contribution of unradiogenic epsilon-Nd from deep waters. The CWC from the Sardinia Channel show a much larger scatter of epsilon-Nd values, from -8.66 ± 0.30 to 5.99 ± 0.50, and a lower average (-7.31 ± 0.73; n = 19) compared to the CWC and foraminifera from the Alboran and Balearic seas, indicative of intermediate waters sourced from the Levantine basin. At the time of sapropel S1 deposition (10.2 to 6.4 ka), the epsilon-Nd values of the Sardinian CWC become more unradiogenic (-8.38 ± 0.47; n = 3 at ~8.7 ka BP), suggesting a significant contribution of intermediate waters originated from the western basin. We propose that western Mediterranean intermediate waters replaced the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), and thus there was a strong reduction of the LIW during the mid-sapropel (~8.7 ka BP). This observation supports a notable change of Mediterranean circulation pattern centered on sapropel S1 that needs further investigation to be confirmed.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
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