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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Silva, Felipe Augusto Cini da;

    Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES Os processos de envelhecimento acarretam em decaimento cognitivo evidenciado pelo déficit em memória de trabalho, em atenção e em resolução de problemas. Essas mudanças são causadas por uma longa lista de processos fisiológicos, incluindo menores taxa de plasticidade, diminuição da arborização e de espinhas dendríticas. Pesquisas mostram que a aplicação de psicodélicos clássicos, agonistas de receptores de serotonina 2A, como ácido lisérgico dietilamida (d-LSD), psilocibina, ayahuasca, 5-MeO-DMT podem causar alterações na função cerebral que persistem por muito tempo após os efeitos agudos, além de induzirem expressão gênica relacionada à plasticidade sináptica e promoverem plasticidade neural funcional e estrutural. Assim, o objetivo desse projeto é investigar se diferentes doses agudas do agonista de serotonina d-LSD em animais de diferentes idades, jovens (2-3 meses), adultos (8-10 meses) e velhos (12-18 meses) podem modular a longo prazo (7 ou 14 dias) o desempenho cognitivo de ratos Wistars nas tarefas de reconhecimento de objetos (TRO). Avaliamos também se o d-LSD pode modular o desempenho de animais adultos nas tarefas de condicionamento aversivo (TCA) e no labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE). Nós encontramos que o d-LSD sozinho aumenta a taxa de exploração do objeto novo na TRO nos animais jovens e adultos. O d-LSD sozinho não recuperou o desempenho nos animais velhos, porém quando o d-LSD foi combinado com enriquecimento ambiental houve uma recuperação cognitiva nos animais velhos. Ratos adultos também apresentaram maiores taxas de freezing na TCA e maior entrada nos braços abertos do LCE. Dessa forma, nosso resultados mostram que o dLSD aparenta modular de forma positiva memória e aprendizados nas tarefas analisadas, enquanto ao mesmo tempo diminui os níveis de ansiedade desses animais. Ainda, o d-LSD tem potencial para causar recuperação cognitiva em animais velhos. The aging processes lead to cognitive decay, evidenced by the deficit in working memory, attention and problem-solving. These changes are caused by a long list of physiological processes, including lower rates of plasticity, decreased arborization and less dendritic spines. Research shows that the application of classic psychedelics, agonists of serotonin 2A receptors, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (d-LSD), psilocybin, ayahuasca, 5-MeO-DMT can cause changes in brain function that persist long after the acute effects. Also, serotonergic agonists induce gene expression related to synaptic plasticity and promote functional and structural neural plasticity. Thus, this project aims to investigate whether different acute doses of the serotonin agonist d-LSD in animals of different ages, young (2-3 months), adults (8-10 months) and old (12-18 months) can modulate in the long term (7 or 14 days) the cognitive performance of Wistar rats in object recognition (ORT) tasks. We also evaluated whether the serotonin agonist can modulate aversive conditioning tasks (ACT) and the elevated plus-maze (EPM) in adult animals. We found that a single dose of d-LSD increases the preference for the new object in young and adult animals. d-LSD alone did not recover performance in old animals, but when it was combined with environmental enrichment there was a significant increase in novelty preference in old animals. Adult rats also showed higher rates of freezing in the ACT and greater time spent in the open arms of the LCE. Thus, our results show that d-LSD appears to positively modulate memory and learning in cognitive tasks, while at the same time decreases the anxiety levels of these animals. Our results also show that d-LSD has the potential to promote cognitive recovery in old animals.

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    Authors: Felippe Junior, Helcio;

    Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES A hipótese do cérebro entrópico afirma que importantes parâmetros funcionais devem exibir aumento de entropia durante estados cerebrais induzidos por psicodélicos. Essa hipótese ganhou considerável suporte ao longo dos últimos anos, particularmente via aplicação de limiar em matrizes de correlação de Pearson de redes de conectividade funcional. Entretanto, o procedimento de aplicação de limiar tem suas desvantagens, principalmente sua arbitrariedade na seleção do valor limiar. Neste trabalho, propomos um método de estimativa de entropia completamente objetivo e independente de limiar. Seja R uma matriz de correlação de Pearson genérica N ×N. Definimos ρ = R/N e provamos que ρ satisfaz as condições necessárias para um operador densidade. Portanto, a entropia de von Neumann S = − tr(ρ ln ρ) pode ser diretamente calculada a partir da matriz de Pearson. Em seguida, calculamos a entropia de correlações funcionais do cérebro humano. Consistente com a hipótese do cérebro entrópico, encontramos que a entropia aumenta durante os efeitos agudos da bebida psicodélica indígena amazônica ayahuasca. The entropic brain hypothesis states that key functional parameters should exhibit increased entropy during psychedelic-induced altered brain states. This hypothesis has gained significant support over the years, particularly via thresholding Pearson correlation matrices of functional connectivity networks. However, the thresholding procedure is known to have drawbacks, mainly its arbitrariness in the threshold value selection. In this work, we propose an entirely objective, threshold-independent method of entropy estimation. Let R be a generic N ×N Pearson correlation matrix. We define ρ = R/N and prove that ρ satisfies the necessary conditions for a density operator. Therefore, the von Neumann entropy S = − tr(ρ ln ρ) can be directly calculated from the Pearson matrix. We then calculate the entropy of functional correlations of the human brain. Consistent with the entropic brain hypothesis, we find that entropy increases during the acute effects of the psychedelic Amazonian indigenous beverage ayahuasca.

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    Authors: Clarinda, Ana Paula de Oliveira Gonçalves;

    Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso apresentado ao Instituto Latino-Americano de Arte, Cultura e História da Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, como requisito parcial à obtenção do título de Bacharel em Antropologia – Diversidade Cultural Latino-Americana. Orientadora: Dra Barbara Maisonnave Arisi O presente trabalho busca compreender e dar uma nova luz a um fenômeno social e popular: os festivais de música eletrônica de trance. Nos últimos 20 anos, esse modo de festejar ganhou espaço e se tornou popular globalmente. Essa pesquisa busca entender melhor os sentidos que os frequentadores dão à manifestação dos festivais de trance psicodélico. Além de um espaço de lazer, para seus participantes, o festival transformou-se em um "modo de vida". O estudo busca compreender como os elementos música, dança e transgressão oferecem uma base aos participantes do festival para que esses busquem obter um êxtase corporal. O estímulo proporcionado pelo ambiente em que ocorre a celebração é um elemento chave para essa busca, os elementos da festa encaixam-se de maneira a fazer com que os sentidos sejam aguçados de maneira a levar ao estado de transe. Como pesquisadora, tentei entender esse universo através da observação participante, para isso participei do festival Mundo de OZ - Arte, cultura, ecologia e música, no qual realizei entrevistas e essa etnografia. The present work seeks to better understand and to shed a new light to a popular and a social phenomena: the trance electronic music festival. In the last 20 years, this way of celebrating has gained space and it became globally more popular. The research seeks to better understand the meaning that the participants give to the trance psychedelic festivals. Beyond being a space of leisure, it became to many people a certain "way of life". The study seeks to understand how the elements music, dance and transgression offer a base for festival participants to search for a kind of body ecstasy. The stimulus provided by the environment in which the celebration takes place is a key element for the participant's quest, the festival elements fit in such a way that the senses are sharpened to lead into a state of trance. As a researcher, I tried to understand this universe through participant observation in the OZ World Festival - Art, Culture, Ecology and Music, where I conducted interviews and collected ethnographic material

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Repositório Instituc...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Escobar, José Arturo Costa;

    CNPq CAPES/FACEPE A ayahuasca é uma bebida de efeitos psicoativos, rica em dimetiltriptamina e beta-carbolinas, que possuem ação sobre o sistema serotonérgico, atuando sobre diversos substratos neurais envolvidos com o ato de despertar, percepção sensorial, emoção e importantes funções cognitivas, tais como memória, autoconsciência, percepção do tempo, fala, semiotização, imagens mentais, entre outras.Sua preparação é feita a partir do cozimento das espécies vegetais Banisteriopsis caapi e Psychotria viridis, cujo chá tem sido empregado em religiosidades brasileiras para práticas de profetização, divinação, veneração e com propósitos medicinais, sendo conhecido no Brasil pelos nomes de Hoasca, Vegetal ou Daime. Por possuir ação particular sobre o sistema de neurotransmissão serotonérgico, envolvido em diversas psicopatologias, estudos têm apontado diversas possibilidades de usos terapêuticos da ayahuasca, em particular no tratamento de drogas de abuso e depressão. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar o impacto do uso continuado da ayahuasca sobre a saúde mental de frequentadores de religiosidades ayahuasqueiras. Foram aplicados testes para acessar a ocorrência de sintomas ligados ao estresse, ansiedade, depressão, desesperança e uso de álcool e tabaco. Também foi investigada a expressão da autoconsciência por meio do questionário de ruminação reflexão e a deterioração de mecanismos da percepção visual e atenção por meio do teste de bissecção manual de linhas. Foram estudados três grupos distintos quanto às suas cosmovisões e que utilizam a ayahuasca dentro de seus sistemas de crenças para a obtenção de estados alterados de consciência com intuitos sagrados, sendo esses: o Santo Daime, a União do Vegetal e a Sociedade Panteísta Ayahuasca. Os resultados demonstraram que os religiosos ayahuasqueiros apresentaram níveis de consumo de álcool e tabaco muito abaixo do que é observado em estudos epidemiológicos nacionais. Também não foi observada a ocorrência relevante ou patológica de quadros de estresse, ansiedade, desesperança e depressão na população estudada e nem foram observados efeitos deletérios na percepção visual e mecanismos atencionais. Os estudos sobre a autoconsciência revelaram que o fator ruminação apresentou-se positivamente correlacionado com índices psicopatológicos indicando a mediação desse aspecto autoconsciente com problemas de saúde mental. Em todos os grupos ayahuasqueiros foram observados valores elevados de autorreflexão em detrimento da ruminação, sendo os panteístas mais reflexivos. Foram observados resultados que apontam a existência de agentes estressores na amostra do Santo Daime, entretanto, sem efeitos negativos evidentes. Em conclusão, os resultados corroboram o que tem sido divulgado na literatura e sugerem que o uso ritual da ayahuasca não promove efeitos negativos ou deteriorantes sobre seus frequentadores, apresentando impactos positivos sobre a saúde mental. Entretanto, no presente estudo, não foi possível demonstrar uma relação com o tempo de uso do chá nos bons resultados encontrados, o que nos leva a sugerir a existência de variáveis socioculturais que devem influenciar nos mecanismos relacionados ao bem-estar e à saúde mental. Estudos futuros visando à investigação controlada para o tratamento de psicopatologias e dependências de drogas com o uso da ayahuasca devem ser realizadas, com particular importância aos contextos de uso, bem como, devem ser aprofundadas as investigações sobre os efeitos da bebida nos mecanismos da autoconsciência.

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    Authors: Ona, Genis; Rios, Francisco M.; Aguirre, José Carlos; Bouso, Jose Carlos; +4 Authors

    El siguiente informe tiene la intención de detallar algunos de los puntos más importantes a tener en cuenta a la hora de cimentar las bases de la aplicación clínica de la psicoterapia asistida con sustancias psicodélicas. Citando los puntos más importantes a tener en cuenta, se propondrá un marco idóneo para el correcto desarrollo de la psicoterapia asistida con sustancias psicodélicas, partiendo de la asunción de que ésta cuenta con determinadas características especiales que deben ser cuidadosamente atendidas y respetadas. The purpose of this report is to provide some of the most important factors of the clinical application of the psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy. Remembering the most important considerations of this treatment, we will expose the basic conditions for his construction. This treatment has some special features, which we have to respect in detail.

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    Authors: Lorenzo Chapatte, Gloria;

    RESUMEN : El trastorno depresivo mayor (MDD) es un trastorno del estado de ánimo que afecta a más de 300 millones de personas en el mundo y que está fuertemente asociado al suicidio. Gracias a la investigación sobre los mecanismos biológicos responsables de esta patología se han desarrollado una serie de fármacos antidepresivos que, con el tiempo, han demostrado tener una eficacia parcial o limitada. Este problema ha generado una necesidad creciente de encontrar nuevas alternativas farmacológicas para combinarlas con las terapias psicológicas y así frenar el aumento del número de casos, entre los que destacan aquellos que no han respondido a las terapias actuales. Una de las alternativas que se están barajando actualmente es el uso de psicodélicos que, a pesar de sus notables efectos psicotrópicos, han demostrado tener una respuesta psicológica positiva en aquellas personas que lo han consumido. Sustancias como la psilocibina, el LSD o la ayahuasca han resurgido y han generado un gran interés científico-sanitario desde hace tiempo por sus efectos positivos, los cuales se están investigado actualmente mediante ensayos clínicos protocolizados para determinar si son beneficiosos, rentables y no perjudiciales en el uso clínico rutinario. ABSTRACT : Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mood disorder that affects more than 300 million people worldwide and is strongly associated with suicide. Research into the biological mechanisms of this pathology has led to the development of different antidepressant drugs which have been shown to have partial or limited efficacy over time. This problem has generated a growing need to find new pharmacological alternatives to combine with psychological therapies in order to stop the increase of cases, including non-responder patients to current therapies. One of the alternatives considered in the last few years are the psychedelic drugs which, despite their remarkable psychotropic effects, have shown a positive psychological response in those who have used them. Substances such as psilocybin, LSD or ayahuasca have made a comeback and have generated great scientific and healthcare interest due to their positive effects, which are currently being investigated through protocolized clinical trials to determine whether they are beneficial, cost-effective and not harmful in routine clinical use. Grado en Medicina

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    Other literature type . 2021
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    Authors: Genís Ona;

    Objetivo. Evaluar el estado de la investigación actual sobre el potencial terapéutico de las sustancias psicodélicas. Metodología. Se realiza una breve revisión temática y se desarrolla un análisis crítico de la situación. Resultados. Se identifican diversas limitaciones y sesgos tanto en estudios observacionales como en ensayos clínicos. Conclusiones. Actualmente se cometen errores remarcables en la investigación sobre terapia psicodélica que pueden llevar a confusiones sobre aspectos tan importantes como su eficacia y su seguridad en contextos terapéuticos. Objective. To assess the situation of research of the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs. Method. A brief review was made, performing a critical analysis. Results. There were identified several limitations and bias, both in observational studies and clinical essays. Conclusion. Nowadays, many mistakes are committed in psychedelic therapy research. Those mistakes could produce some confusions about crucial aspects like the efficacy or safety of this treatment.

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    Cultura y Droga
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Cultura y Droga
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    Authors: Díaz Velásquez, Martin Ignacio; European Institute for Multidisciplinary Studies on Human Rights and Science - Knowmad Institut;

    Abstract Este aporte se trata de una somera revisión de la prohibición de sustancias psicoactivas, principalmente de las plantas medicinales a nivel internacional, encontrando que la occidentalización del conocimiento presenta uno de los obstáculos a la hora de aplicar saberes ancestrales sobre medicamentos herbarios. Como adicional, echa una mirada sobre las intersecciones entre la cuarta revolución industrial, el uso de psicodélicos y la salud mental. Citar artículo: Díaz Velásquez, M. I. (2020). Plantas Medicinales: De Falacia Sanitaria a Medicamento del Futuro. Journal de Estudios Multidisciplinarios Sobre Derechos Humanos y Ciencias, 1(1). Knowmad Institut. https://knowmadinstitut.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/ES-_-Plantas-Medicinales_-De-Falacia-Sanitaria-a-Medicamento-del-Futuro.pdf CC BY-NC 4.0 // 2020 | Knowmad Institut gemeinnützige UG (haftungsbeschränkt).

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    Authors: Souza, Annie da Costa;

    Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES Psicodélicos clássicos são substâncias conhecidas por induzir estados alterados de consciência. Esses estados dependem da atividade de receptores serotonérgicos 5-HT2A e 5-HT1A. Porém, devido à longa proibição dessas drogas, pouco é conhecido quanto aos correlatos eletrofisiológicos no cérebro. No primeiro capítulo do presente trabalho, investigamos os efeitos da 5-MeO-DMT(DMT) e do d-LSD, dois potentes agonistas serotonérgicos, na atividade eletrofisiológica do hipocampo (HP) e do córtex pré-frontal (PF) de ratos. Encontramos alterações típicas de comportamento nos 15 minutos subsequentes à injeção das drogas, tais como aumento da locomoção, ocupância da arena, e ocorrência de comportamentos estereotipados (wetdog shake, andar descoordenado etc). Em acordo com resultados prévios, encontramos alterações nos potenciais de campo local (‗local field potential‘, LFP) no PF, bem como no HP. Enquanto a potência na faixa de frequência de theta (5-10Hz) gama (30-100Hz) diminuiu em ambas as áreas nos primeiros 30 minutos após a injeção de DMT, a potência na faixa de delta (0.5-4.5Hz) não apresentou variação significativa. De modo semelhante, porém tardio, o HP apresentou diminuição da potência na faixa de gama após ~4h30min da injeção de d-LSD. Além disso, encontramos um aumento da coerência entre PF e HP na faixa de delta e gama para os experimentos DMT na condição experimental de injeção intraperitoneal (i.p.). Considerando que os achados acima mencionados sugerem que DMT e d-LSD levam a estados cerebrais alterados em termos de eletrofisiologia, decidimos compará-los ao ciclo sono-vigília. Análises de mapa de estados definidos por razões espectrais demonstraram que ambas as substâncias promovem uma mudança no ciclo sono-vigília. Os animais apresentaram maior velocidade durante estados classificados eletrofisiologicamente como sono de movimento rápido dos olhos (‗rapid eye movement‘, REM) e sono de ondas lentas (‗slow wave sleep‘, SWS). Em alguns casos foi possível observar também transições pouco usuais entre estados (WK para REM). Em outras palavras, ainda que o animal estivesse comportamentalmente acordado, essa vigília é similar a estados de sono, pelo menos em termos eletrofisiológicos. Em suma, esses resultados corroboram parcialmente achados anteriores e trazem alguns pontos ao debate. Adicionalmente, os novos resultados encontrados aqui contribuem para um melhor entendimento das mudanças eletrofisiológicas causadas por alucinógenos no cérebro. O segundo capítulo dessa tese é dedicado à investigação do papel cognitivo das fases do sono em termos moleculares (e eletrofisiológicos). O sono desempenha um papel importante na consolidação de memórias, entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre os aspectos moleculares que estão por trás desse papel e sobre qual dinâmica tal perfil apresentaria durante as fases de SWS e sono REM. Em estudo prévio, demonstramos que a CaMKIIα fosforilada, uma proteína quinase relacionada à plasticidade sináptica, diminui durante o SWS e encontra-se com níveis aumentados durante o sono REM no HP de ratos. Tal efeito ocorre somente em animais que foram previamente expostos a objetos novos na vigília precedente, assim como na indução transcricional de genes imediatos (IEG) dependentes de CaMKII durante o sono REM, conforme estudos anteriores de nosso grupo. Tal indução de IEG se dá inicialmente no HP e depois, gradualmente, se transfere ao córtex somestésico primário (S1). Hipotetizamos que o SWS e o sono REM possuem papéis e perfis de fosforilação proteica distintos no processamento de memórias durante o sono. Mais especificamente, fizemos um ‗screening‘ das proteínas fosforiladas no S1 e no HP durante ambas fases do sono em animais expostos (+) ou não expostos (-) à novidade na vigília anterior. Identificamos 535 fosfoproteínas no total para as regiões HP (198) e S1 (337), dentre as quais 90 proteínas foram significativamente moduladas (S1=69; HP=21). Através de análises ontogenéticas encontramos que as proteínas moduladas pertencem a diversas classes, por exemplo, relacionadas à organização de citoesqueleto, processamento de RNA, vias de sinalização por cálcio etc. Os resultados apontam para uma maior abundância de proteínas significativamente moduladas no S1 de animais expostos a novidade durante o SWS (S1=23 HP=9, SWS+ x SWS-). Possivelmente essa modulação (diminuição/aumento) da abundância de proteínas fosforiladas está relacionada aos estados de ativação e desativação (‗up and down‘ states) que ocorrem no SWS. Já durante o sono REM, há menor número de proteínas moduladas (S1=3; HP=3, REM+ x REM-). É possível que a novidade/estímulo gere uma fosforilação mais seletiva de proteínas relacionadas ao processamento sensorial, principalmente durante o sono REM. Encontramos que proteínas relacionadas à plasticidade sináptica estão moduladas e que algumas delas se correlacionam com fusos corticais durante o SWS e sono intermediário (IS). Por exemplo, a Relina, proteína que regula positivamente a morfogênese sináptica, está aumentada durante o sono REM+ comparado ao SWS+, e se correlaciona positivamente com o número de fusos durante o SWS e IS. Comparando os mesmos grupos encontramos que a CaCNA, um canal de cálcio dependente de voltagem, encontra-se com níveis diminuídos de fosforilação. A CaCNA desfosforilada forma um complexo (com Ca+2\Calcineurina) que atua na regulação transcricional de genes relacionados a plasticidade sináptica. As análises funcionais das proteínas que servem de marcadores dos grupos experimentais e análises de correlação com fusos indicam que há enriquecimento concomitante de vias relacionadas a cascatas envolvidas na regulação positiva e negativa da ‗força sináptica‘ (por exemplo, proteínas quinases e fosfatases). Tal ideia é corroborada por achados prévios do nosso grupo e também por evidências recentes de outros grupos (e.x. poda e ‗reforço‘ de sinapses durante o REM após aprendizado motor). Nosso estudo indica que o SWS e o sono REM possuem diferentes perfis de fosforilação de proteínas relacionadas à modulação sináptica, sugerindo que possuem papéis distintos e complementares na consolidação de memórias. Nossos achados corroboram a teoria do entalhamento de memórias durante o sono, no qual algumas sinapses são ‗fortalecidas‘ enquanto outras são ‗enfraquecidas‘. Classic psychedelics are substances known for altering consciousness. Its psychoactive effect is dependent on 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A serotonergic receptors, but due to the long prohibition of these drugs, little is known about their electrophysiological effects on the brain. In the current work I set out to investigate the effects of 5-MeO-DMT (DMT) and d-LSD, two potent serotonergic agonists, on the local field potentials (LFP) recorded from the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of rats. Typical behavioral alterations ~15 min after drug injection were observed, such as increased locomotion, space occupancy, and the occurrence of stereotyped behaviors (wet-dog shake, uncoordinated gaiting etc). Similar to previous results, LFP alterations were detected in prefrontal cortical areas (PFC), as well as in the hippocampus (HP). The power in the theta (5-12 Hz) and gamma band (30-100 Hz) decreased in the two areas within the first 30 min after (i.p. and i.c.v.) DMT injection for all experiments, except for the highest dose of DMT (i.c.v.) in the PFC. Likewise, we found a similar result for d-LSD in the long-term analysis, there was a decrease in the gamma power after ~4h30min after d-LSD (i.p.) injection. Moreover, coherence analysis revealed that DMT (i.p.) increased the coherence between HP and PFC in the delta and gamma range. Next, we assessed how similar the changes caused by classic psychedelics are to the changes observed across the sleep-wake cycle. State map analysis revealed that both substances promoted a shift in the spectral profile typical of waking (WK) towards that of slow-wave sleep (SWS) or intermediated sleep (IS)/REM. Although animals remain awake after being treated with psychedelics, it is not a normal WK in terms of the LFP spectral profile. While some of the results obtained corroborate previous studies (e.g., the decrease in gamma power in the PFC), we also found divergent results, such as the decrease in PFC theta power. Altogether, the results are novel and promote a better understanding of the neurophysiological alterations caused by classic hallucinogens. The second chapter of this thesis is dedicated to the investigation of the cognitive role of the distinct sleep stages in terms of the molecular (and electrophysiological) correlates. Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation and cognition, however little is known on the molecular mechanism that underlies this function, and which dynamic it would have across the different sleep stages (SWS and REM sleep). In previous works, we have demonstrated that phosphorylated CaMKIIα, a kinase protein related to synaptic plasticity, and CaMKII-dependent immediate-early gene (IEG), zif-268, are down-regulated during SWS and up-regulated during REM sleep in the HP of rats exposed to novelty in the previous waking. That IEG induction is initiated in the HP and is gradually transferred to the somatosensory cortex (S1). We hypothesized that the SWS and REM sleep play distinct roles in memory processing during sleep and that the phosphoproteomic profiles are as well distinct. More specifically, we screened the phosphorylated proteins of the S1 and the HP during both sleep stages of animals that were exposed (+) or not exposed (-) to novelty in the previous waking. We identified a total of 535 phosphoproteins in both HP (198) and S1 (337), and 90 were significantly modulated across the sleep cycle (S1=69; HP=21). The ontogenetic analysis revealed that the modulated proteins belong to several classes, for instance, cytoskeleton organization, RNA processing, calcium signalling pathways etc. Overall the results point that novelty-induced changes in protein phosphorylation levels are more pronounced in the S1 mainly during SWS (S1=23, HP=9, SWS+ x SWS-). Possibly, this upward/downward modulation could be related to the characteristics of the ‗up and down‘ states of the slow oscillations of SWS. A variety of functions were identified and a great part of that refers to the general functioning of the neurons, especially during SWS. During REM sleep there are fewer modulated proteins (S1=3, HP=3, REM+ x REM-). It is possible that novelty/stimuli would narrow the phosphorylation to more specific pathways related to sensory processing, mainly during REM sleep. We found that synaptic plasticity-related proteins are significantly modulated and some are correlated to SWS and intermediate sleep (IS) cortical spindle occurrence. For instance, Reelin, a protein that positively regulates synaptic morphogenesis, is upregulated during REM sleep compared to SWS of novelty exposed animals, and it is positively correlated to SWS and IS spindle count. Comparing the same groups (REM+ x SWS+) we found that CaCNA, a calcium voltage-dependent channel, is downregulated. The dephosphorylated CaCNA forms a complex (with Ca+2\Calcineurin) that regulates synaptic plasticity-related gene transcription. The functional analysis of proteins that are markers of experimental groups and spindles correlation analysis indicate that there is a concomitant enrichment of pathways related to synaptic reinforcement and weakening (e.g. activation of proteins kinases and phosphatases). Such an idea is corroborated by previous findings of our group and also by other recent evidence by other groups (e.g. REM sleep synaptic pruning and strengthening after motor learning). Our study indicates that SWS and REM sleep have different phosphorylation profiles, suggesting they have distinct and complementary roles in memory consolidation. Finally, our findings corroborate the theory of synaptic embossing during sleep, in which synapses are ‗reinforced‘ or ‗weakened‘.

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    Authors: A. Viol; H. Felippe Jr.; Fernanda Palhano-Fontes; Heloisa Onias; +2 Authors

    O objetivo principal da mecânica estatística é relacionar a física microscópica regida pelas leis de Newton, ou então pela mecânica quântica, com a física macroscópica regida pelas leis da termodinâmica. Conceitos macroscópicos, tais como a temperatura, que não fazem sentido do ponto de vista microscópico, surgem na mecânica estatística como propriedades emergentes quando o número de partículas torna-se suficientemente grande. O sucesso da mecânica estatística em explicar e prever uma variedade de fenômenos macroscópicos motivou a aplicação de conceitos e métodos da física estatística ao estudo de sistemas complexos e redes complexas, inclusive em neurociência. Nosso objetivo neste trabalho é aplicar essa abordagem a um problema chave na neurociência: como entender quantitativamente os correlatos neurais de estados mentais alterados de consciência induzidos por substâncias psicodélicas? Vamos primeiro introduzir alguns conceitos básicos sobre a conectividade funcional das regiões do cérebro. Discutimos então a fenomenologia e a neurociência relacionadas aos psicodélicos. Finalmente, resumimos alguns estudos que aplicaram a física estatística e a teoria de redes complexas para tentar melhor entender o comportamento do cérebro sob influência dos psicodélicos The primary aim of statistical mechanics is to relate the micropscopic physics governed by Newton’s laws, or else by quantum mechanics, to the macroscopic physics governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Macroscopic properties, such as temperature, may have no meaning at the microscopic level, but they arise as emergent properties in statistical mechanics when the number of particles becomes sufficiently large. The success of statistical mechanics in explaining and predicting a variety of macroscopic phenomena has motivated the application of concepts and methods of statistical physics to study complex systems and complex networks, including in neuroscience. Our aim here is to apply this approach to a key problem in neuroscience: how can we quantitatively understand the neural correlates of altered mental states induced by psychedelic substances? We first give an overview of basic concepts concerning functional connectivity of brain regions. We then discuss the phenomenology and the neuroscience related to psychedelics. Finally, we review some studies that have applied statistical physics and the theory of complex networks to try to gain a better understanding of the brain under the influence of psychedelics

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    Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física
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      Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Silva, Felipe Augusto Cini da;

    Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES Os processos de envelhecimento acarretam em decaimento cognitivo evidenciado pelo déficit em memória de trabalho, em atenção e em resolução de problemas. Essas mudanças são causadas por uma longa lista de processos fisiológicos, incluindo menores taxa de plasticidade, diminuição da arborização e de espinhas dendríticas. Pesquisas mostram que a aplicação de psicodélicos clássicos, agonistas de receptores de serotonina 2A, como ácido lisérgico dietilamida (d-LSD), psilocibina, ayahuasca, 5-MeO-DMT podem causar alterações na função cerebral que persistem por muito tempo após os efeitos agudos, além de induzirem expressão gênica relacionada à plasticidade sináptica e promoverem plasticidade neural funcional e estrutural. Assim, o objetivo desse projeto é investigar se diferentes doses agudas do agonista de serotonina d-LSD em animais de diferentes idades, jovens (2-3 meses), adultos (8-10 meses) e velhos (12-18 meses) podem modular a longo prazo (7 ou 14 dias) o desempenho cognitivo de ratos Wistars nas tarefas de reconhecimento de objetos (TRO). Avaliamos também se o d-LSD pode modular o desempenho de animais adultos nas tarefas de condicionamento aversivo (TCA) e no labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE). Nós encontramos que o d-LSD sozinho aumenta a taxa de exploração do objeto novo na TRO nos animais jovens e adultos. O d-LSD sozinho não recuperou o desempenho nos animais velhos, porém quando o d-LSD foi combinado com enriquecimento ambiental houve uma recuperação cognitiva nos animais velhos. Ratos adultos também apresentaram maiores taxas de freezing na TCA e maior entrada nos braços abertos do LCE. Dessa forma, nosso resultados mostram que o dLSD aparenta modular de forma positiva memória e aprendizados nas tarefas analisadas, enquanto ao mesmo tempo diminui os níveis de ansiedade desses animais. Ainda, o d-LSD tem potencial para causar recuperação cognitiva em animais velhos. The aging processes lead to cognitive decay, evidenced by the deficit in working memory, attention and problem-solving. These changes are caused by a long list of physiological processes, including lower rates of plasticity, decreased arborization and less dendritic spines. Research shows that the application of classic psychedelics, agonists of serotonin 2A receptors, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (d-LSD), psilocybin, ayahuasca, 5-MeO-DMT can cause changes in brain function that persist long after the acute effects. Also, serotonergic agonists induce gene expression related to synaptic plasticity and promote functional and structural neural plasticity. Thus, this project aims to investigate whether different acute doses of the serotonin agonist d-LSD in animals of different ages, young (2-3 months), adults (8-10 months) and old (12-18 months) can modulate in the long term (7 or 14 days) the cognitive performance of Wistar rats in object recognition (ORT) tasks. We also evaluated whether the serotonin agonist can modulate aversive conditioning tasks (ACT) and the elevated plus-maze (EPM) in adult animals. We found that a single dose of d-LSD increases the preference for the new object in young and adult animals. d-LSD alone did not recover performance in old animals, but when it was combined with environmental enrichment there was a significant increase in novelty preference in old animals. Adult rats also showed higher rates of freezing in the ACT and greater time spent in the open arms of the LCE. Thus, our results show that d-LSD appears to positively modulate memory and learning in cognitive tasks, while at the same time decreases the anxiety levels of these animals. Our results also show that d-LSD has the potential to promote cognitive recovery in old animals.

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    Authors: Felippe Junior, Helcio;

    Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES A hipótese do cérebro entrópico afirma que importantes parâmetros funcionais devem exibir aumento de entropia durante estados cerebrais induzidos por psicodélicos. Essa hipótese ganhou considerável suporte ao longo dos últimos anos, particularmente via aplicação de limiar em matrizes de correlação de Pearson de redes de conectividade funcional. Entretanto, o procedimento de aplicação de limiar tem suas desvantagens, principalmente sua arbitrariedade na seleção do valor limiar. Neste trabalho, propomos um método de estimativa de entropia completamente objetivo e independente de limiar. Seja R uma matriz de correlação de Pearson genérica N ×N. Definimos ρ = R/N e provamos que ρ satisfaz as condições necessárias para um operador densidade. Portanto, a entropia de von Neumann S = − tr(ρ ln ρ) pode ser diretamente calculada a partir da matriz de Pearson. Em seguida, calculamos a entropia de correlações funcionais do cérebro humano. Consistente com a hipótese do cérebro entrópico, encontramos que a entropia aumenta durante os efeitos agudos da bebida psicodélica indígena amazônica ayahuasca. The entropic brain hypothesis states that key functional parameters should exhibit increased entropy during psychedelic-induced altered brain states. This hypothesis has gained significant support over the years, particularly via thresholding Pearson correlation matrices of functional connectivity networks. However, the thresholding procedure is known to have drawbacks, mainly its arbitrariness in the threshold value selection. In this work, we propose an entirely objective, threshold-independent method of entropy estimation. Let R be a generic N ×N Pearson correlation matrix. We define ρ = R/N and prove that ρ satisfies the necessary conditions for a density operator. Therefore, the von Neumann entropy S = − tr(ρ ln ρ) can be directly calculated from the Pearson matrix. We then calculate the entropy of functional correlations of the human brain. Consistent with the entropic brain hypothesis, we find that entropy increases during the acute effects of the psychedelic Amazonian indigenous beverage ayahuasca.

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    Authors: Clarinda, Ana Paula de Oliveira Gonçalves;

    Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso apresentado ao Instituto Latino-Americano de Arte, Cultura e História da Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, como requisito parcial à obtenção do título de Bacharel em Antropologia – Diversidade Cultural Latino-Americana. Orientadora: Dra Barbara Maisonnave Arisi O presente trabalho busca compreender e dar uma nova luz a um fenômeno social e popular: os festivais de música eletrônica de trance. Nos últimos 20 anos, esse modo de festejar ganhou espaço e se tornou popular globalmente. Essa pesquisa busca entender melhor os sentidos que os frequentadores dão à manifestação dos festivais de trance psicodélico. Além de um espaço de lazer, para seus participantes, o festival transformou-se em um "modo de vida". O estudo busca compreender como os elementos música, dança e transgressão oferecem uma base aos participantes do festival para que esses busquem obter um êxtase corporal. O estímulo proporcionado pelo ambiente em que ocorre a celebração é um elemento chave para essa busca, os elementos da festa encaixam-se de maneira a fazer com que os sentidos sejam aguçados de maneira a levar ao estado de transe. Como pesquisadora, tentei entender esse universo através da observação participante, para isso participei do festival Mundo de OZ - Arte, cultura, ecologia e música, no qual realizei entrevistas e essa etnografia. The present work seeks to better understand and to shed a new light to a popular and a social phenomena: the trance electronic music festival. In the last 20 years, this way of celebrating has gained space and it became globally more popular. The research seeks to better understand the meaning that the participants give to the trance psychedelic festivals. Beyond being a space of leisure, it became to many people a certain "way of life". The study seeks to understand how the elements music, dance and transgression offer a base for festival participants to search for a kind of body ecstasy. The stimulus provided by the environment in which the celebration takes place is a key element for the participant's quest, the festival elements fit in such a way that the senses are sharpened to lead into a state of trance. As a researcher, I tried to understand this universe through participant observation in the OZ World Festival - Art, Culture, Ecology and Music, where I conducted interviews and collected ethnographic material

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    Authors: Escobar, José Arturo Costa;

    CNPq CAPES/FACEPE A ayahuasca é uma bebida de efeitos psicoativos, rica em dimetiltriptamina e beta-carbolinas, que possuem ação sobre o sistema serotonérgico, atuando sobre diversos substratos neurais envolvidos com o ato de despertar, percepção sensorial, emoção e importantes funções cognitivas, tais como memória, autoconsciência, percepção do tempo, fala, semiotização, imagens mentais, entre outras.Sua preparação é feita a partir do cozimento das espécies vegetais Banisteriopsis caapi e Psychotria viridis, cujo chá tem sido empregado em religiosidades brasileiras para práticas de profetização, divinação, veneração e com propósitos medicinais, sendo conhecido no Brasil pelos nomes de Hoasca, Vegetal ou Daime. Por possuir ação particular sobre o sistema de neurotransmissão serotonérgico, envolvido em diversas psicopatologias, estudos têm apontado diversas possibilidades de usos terapêuticos da ayahuasca, em particular no tratamento de drogas de abuso e depressão. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar o impacto do uso continuado da ayahuasca sobre a saúde mental de frequentadores de religiosidades ayahuasqueiras. Foram aplicados testes para acessar a ocorrência de sintomas ligados ao estresse, ansiedade, depressão, desesperança e uso de álcool e tabaco. Também foi investigada a expressão da autoconsciência por meio do questionário de ruminação reflexão e a deterioração de mecanismos da percepção visual e atenção por meio do teste de bissecção manual de linhas. Foram estudados três grupos distintos quanto às suas cosmovisões e que utilizam a ayahuasca dentro de seus sistemas de crenças para a obtenção de estados alterados de consciência com intuitos sagrados, sendo esses: o Santo Daime, a União do Vegetal e a Sociedade Panteísta Ayahuasca. Os resultados demonstraram que os religiosos ayahuasqueiros apresentaram níveis de consumo de álcool e tabaco muito abaixo do que é observado em estudos epidemiológicos nacionais. Também não foi observada a ocorrência relevante ou patológica de quadros de estresse, ansiedade, desesperança e depressão na população estudada e nem foram observados efeitos deletérios na percepção visual e mecanismos atencionais. Os estudos sobre a autoconsciência revelaram que o fator ruminação apresentou-se positivamente correlacionado com índices psicopatológicos indicando a mediação desse aspecto autoconsciente com problemas de saúde mental. Em todos os grupos ayahuasqueiros foram observados valores elevados de autorreflexão em detrimento da ruminação, sendo os panteístas mais reflexivos. Foram observados resultados que apontam a existência de agentes estressores na amostra do Santo Daime, entretanto, sem efeitos negativos evidentes. Em conclusão, os resultados corroboram o que tem sido divulgado na literatura e sugerem que o uso ritual da ayahuasca não promove efeitos negativos ou deteriorantes sobre seus frequentadores, apresentando impactos positivos sobre a saúde mental. Entretanto, no presente estudo, não foi possível demonstrar uma relação com o tempo de uso do chá nos bons resultados encontrados, o que nos leva a sugerir a existência de variáveis socioculturais que devem influenciar nos mecanismos relacionados ao bem-estar e à saúde mental. Estudos futuros visando à investigação controlada para o tratamento de psicopatologias e dependências de drogas com o uso da ayahuasca devem ser realizadas, com particular importância aos contextos de uso, bem como, devem ser aprofundadas as investigações sobre os efeitos da bebida nos mecanismos da autoconsciência.

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    Authors: Ona, Genis; Rios, Francisco M.; Aguirre, José Carlos; Bouso, Jose Carlos; +4 Authors

    El siguiente informe tiene la intención de detallar algunos de los puntos más importantes a tener en cuenta a la hora de cimentar las bases de la aplicación clínica de la psicoterapia asistida con sustancias psicodélicas. Citando los puntos más importantes a tener en cuenta, se propondrá un marco idóneo para el correcto desarrollo de la psicoterapia asistida con sustancias psicodélicas, partiendo de la asunción de que ésta cuenta con determinadas características especiales que deben ser cuidadosamente atendidas y respetadas. The purpose of this report is to provide some of the most important factors of the clinical application of the psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy. Remembering the most important considerations of this treatment, we will expose the basic conditions for his construction. This treatment has some special features, which we have to respect in detail.

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    Authors: Lorenzo Chapatte, Gloria;

    RESUMEN : El trastorno depresivo mayor (MDD) es un trastorno del estado de ánimo que afecta a más de 300 millones de personas en el mundo y que está fuertemente asociado al suicidio. Gracias a la investigación sobre los mecanismos biológicos responsables de esta patología se han desarrollado una serie de fármacos antidepresivos que, con el tiempo, han demostrado tener una eficacia parcial o limitada. Este problema ha generado una necesidad creciente de encontrar nuevas alternativas farmacológicas para combinarlas con las terapias psicológicas y así frenar el aumento del número de casos, entre los que destacan aquellos que no han respondido a las terapias actuales. Una de las alternativas que se están barajando actualmente es el uso de psicodélicos que, a pesar de sus notables efectos psicotrópicos, han demostrado tener una respuesta psicológica positiva en aquellas personas que lo han consumido. Sustancias como la psilocibina, el LSD o la ayahuasca han resurgido y han generado un gran interés científico-sanitario desde hace tiempo por sus efectos positivos, los cuales se están investigado actualmente mediante ensayos clínicos protocolizados para determinar si son beneficiosos, rentables y no perjudiciales en el uso clínico rutinario. ABSTRACT : Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mood disorder that affects more than 300 million people worldwide and is strongly associated with suicide. Research into the biological mechanisms of this pathology has led to the development of different antidepressant drugs which have been shown to have partial or limited efficacy over time. This problem has generated a growing need to find new pharmacological alternatives to combine with psychological therapies in order to stop the increase of cases, including non-responder patients to current therapies. One of the alternatives considered in the last few years are the psychedelic drugs which, despite their remarkable psychotropic effects, have shown a positive psychological response in those who have used them. Substances such as psilocybin, LSD or ayahuasca have made a comeback and have generated great scientific and healthcare interest due to their positive effects, which are currently being investigated through protocolized clinical trials to determine whether they are beneficial, cost-effective and not harmful in routine clinical use. Grado en Medicina

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    UCrea
    Other literature type . 2021
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: UCrea
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ UCreaarrow_drop_down
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      UCrea
      Other literature type . 2021
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    Authors: Genís Ona;

    Objetivo. Evaluar el estado de la investigación actual sobre el potencial terapéutico de las sustancias psicodélicas. Metodología. Se realiza una breve revisión temática y se desarrolla un análisis crítico de la situación. Resultados. Se identifican diversas limitaciones y sesgos tanto en estudios observacionales como en ensayos clínicos. Conclusiones. Actualmente se cometen errores remarcables en la investigación sobre terapia psicodélica que pueden llevar a confusiones sobre aspectos tan importantes como su eficacia y su seguridad en contextos terapéuticos. Objective. To assess the situation of research of the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs. Method. A brief review was made, performing a critical analysis. Results. There were identified several limitations and bias, both in observational studies and clinical essays. Conclusion. Nowadays, many mistakes are committed in psychedelic therapy research. Those mistakes could produce some confusions about crucial aspects like the efficacy or safety of this treatment.

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    Cultura y Droga
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Cultura y Droga
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref