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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Balan, Elena-Madalina;

    La globalización económica-financiera es un fenómeno que ha permitido el desarrollo del crimen organizado, dando lugar a numerosas crisis financieras, provocadas mayoritariamente por el delito del blanqueo de capitales. El presente trabajo está orientado a presentar un análisis jurídico e interpretativo sobre un delito que ha pasado por sucesivas reformas y actualizaciones. Explicaré su mecanismo; sus fases, sus consecuencias socioeconómicas, así como las técnicas empleadas para blanquear capitales. Abordaré los distintos tipos de órganos intergubernamentales que luchan contra este delito y las posibles infracciones existentes junto con sus respectivas sanciones, en el marco jurídico nacional e internacional. Trabajo Fin de Grado leído en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en el curso académico 2022/2023. Directores/as: Ignacio Montoro Iturbe-Ormaeche

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Miguel Ángel Cano-Paños;

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar las estrategias que se han desarrollado recientemente en España para combatir las actividades delictivas de los clanes familiares dedicados al crimen organizado, desde un punto de vista policial, penal y procesal. Al mismo tiempo se ponen sobre la mesa una serie de medidas de carácter preventivo dirigidas a impedir el nacimiento y consolidación de estos clanes familiares. La metodología utilizada ha consistido básicamente en la consulta de fuentes abiertas, tanto en trabajos doctrinales publicados como en artículos de prensa referidos al fenómeno de los clanes familiares. También se ha acudido a la información obtenida en una entrevista a un agente de la Policía Nacional española, que permitió obtener información novedosa de primera mano sobre las medidas policiales y penales en este contexto.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Revista Científica G...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Revista Científica G...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ramírez Vásquez, Daniel;

    Money laundering is the most commonly occurring form of financial crime -- This has been facilitated by the presence of diverse technology that has made money laundering easier -- Globally, money laundering is a major concern since it is linked to terrorist financing and corruption of the financial systems -- In response, the international community has strengthened the AML/CFT structures following the terrorist act in the Unites States in September 2011 -- The thesis presents an analysis of the AML regulations and the challenges that national governments and the international community face when combating money laundering -- The main research question is: Is the current international anti-money laundering regime sufficiently robust to effectively control and limit the phenomenon of international money laundering? -- This report explains the negative effects of money laundering to the economies of countries, the international trend-setters of the AML regulations and the challenges faced during the implementation of AML policies -- After properly studying the literature, there seems to be major challenge during the implementation of the AML regulations making money laundering a pressing issue in both developing and developed countries -- To facilitate the implementation of AML framework, nations should create a framework for exchange of information -- As much as it’s a challenge, there is need for evaluation of the effectiveness of the AML structure particularly due to the changes providing new techniques for money laundering

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ LAReferencia - Red F...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ LAReferencia - Red F...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Blanco Cordero, Isidoro;

    [ES] El blanqueo de capitales es un fenómeno delictivo ligado a la delincuencia organizada. Las organizaciones criminales obtienen enormes beneficios de los diversos tráficos, y para disfrutar de estas ganancias deben blanquear su origen delictivo, lo que consiguen a través de diferentes medios. En Europa se está llevando a cabo una importante labor para luchar contra este fenómeno. Así, el presente trabajo examina la intervención de la Unión Europea en el marco de las iniciativas internacionales en la materia, explicando la estrategia contra el blanqueo de capitales a través del análisis de la Directiva 91/308/CEE sobre prevención de la utilización del sistema financiero para el blanqueo de capitales de 1991. [FR] Le blanchiment d’argent est un phénomène délictueux lié à la délinquance organisée. Les organisations criminelles obtiennent des bénéfices énormes des divers trafics, et pour jouir de ces profits ils doivent blanchir leur origine délictueuse, ce qui obtiennent à travers différents moyens. En Europe on mène à bien une importante tâche pour combattre ce phénomène. Ainsi, ce travail examine l’intervention de l’Union Européenne dans le cadre des initiatives internationales dans la matière, en expliquant la stratégie contre le blanchiment d’argent à travers l’analyse de la Directive 91/308/CEE sur la prévention de l’utilisation du système financier pour le blanchiment d’argent de 1991. [EN] The money laundering is a criminal phenomenon related to the organized crime. The criminal organizations obtain enormous benefits by the diverse traffics, and to own these gains they must launder its criminal origin through different means. In Europe an important work is being carried out to fight against this phenomenon. Thus, the present work examines the intervention of the European Union within the framework of the international initiatives in the matter, explaining the strategy against the money laundering through the analysis of the Directive 91/308/CEE (OJ L 166, 28.6.1991) on prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering. [ES] Delitugintza antolatuari loturiko irudia dugu kapital zuriketa. Antolaketa kriminalek onura izugarriak izaten dituzte trafiko ezberdinetatik, eta etekin hauetaz gozatzeko oinarri deliktiboa gorde beharrean aurkitzen dira, guzti hori bide ezberdinetatik lortzen dute. Hau hala izanik, lan honek Europar Batasunaren eskuhartzea aztertzen du. Guzti hori, 1991. urteko kapital zuriketaren delitu-egintzak aurrezaintzeko 91/308/CEE zuzentaraua aztertuaz egiten da.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Miguel Ángel Cano-Paños;

    RESUMEN. Desde hace unos años han proliferado en España grupos y organizaciones dedicadas sobre todo a la producción, custodia y tráfico de drogas ilegales. Su peculiaridad es que son estructuras opacas y endogámicas unidas por lazos familiares o étnicos, por lo cual se conocen con el término de "clanes familiares". A pesar del aumento de la presión policial, dichas estructuras siguen actuando con unos destacados márgenes de impunidad y un considerable beneficio económico. Así, este artículo, que constituye la primera parte de un extenso trabajo de investigación, se dedica a analizar las características de estos clanes familiares en el Campo de Gibraltar y en Granada, sus actividades delictivas, así como los distintos factores que han dado lugar a su nacimiento y consolidación en territorio español. ABSTRACT. Groups and organizations dedicated mainly to the production, custody, and trafficking of illegal drugs have proliferated in Spain in recent years. Their distinctiveness is that they are opaque and endogamous structures united by family or ethnic ties, therefore, known as "family clans." Despite increased police pressure, these structures continue to operate with significant margins of impunity and considerable economic benefit. Thus, this article, which is the first part of a broader research, analyzes these family clans' characteristics in the Campo de Gibraltar and Granada, their criminal activities, and the different factors that have led to their birth and consolidation in Spanish territory.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scientific Electroni...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Revista Científica General José María Córdova
    Article
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Revista Científica General José María Córdova
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scientific Electroni...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Revista Científica General José María Córdova
      Article
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Revista Científica General José María Córdova
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Balan, Elena-Madalina;

    La globalización económica-financiera es un fenómeno que ha permitido el desarrollo del crimen organizado, dando lugar a numerosas crisis financieras, provocadas mayoritariamente por el delito del blanqueo de capitales. El presente trabajo está orientado a presentar un análisis jurídico e interpretativo sobre un delito que ha pasado por sucesivas reformas y actualizaciones. Explicaré su mecanismo; sus fases, sus consecuencias socioeconómicas, así como las técnicas empleadas para blanquear capitales. Abordaré los distintos tipos de órganos intergubernamentales que luchan contra este delito y las posibles infracciones existentes junto con sus respectivas sanciones, en el marco jurídico nacional e internacional. Trabajo Fin de Grado leído en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en el curso académico 2022/2023. Directores/as: Ignacio Montoro Iturbe-Ormaeche

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Miguel Ángel Cano-Paños;

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar las estrategias que se han desarrollado recientemente en España para combatir las actividades delictivas de los clanes familiares dedicados al crimen organizado, desde un punto de vista policial, penal y procesal. Al mismo tiempo se ponen sobre la mesa una serie de medidas de carácter preventivo dirigidas a impedir el nacimiento y consolidación de estos clanes familiares. La metodología utilizada ha consistido básicamente en la consulta de fuentes abiertas, tanto en trabajos doctrinales publicados como en artículos de prensa referidos al fenómeno de los clanes familiares. También se ha acudido a la información obtenida en una entrevista a un agente de la Policía Nacional española, que permitió obtener información novedosa de primera mano sobre las medidas policiales y penales en este contexto.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Revista Científica G...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Ramírez Vásquez, Daniel;

    Money laundering is the most commonly occurring form of financial crime -- This has been facilitated by the presence of diverse technology that has made money laundering easier -- Globally, money laundering is a major concern since it is linked to terrorist financing and corruption of the financial systems -- In response, the international community has strengthened the AML/CFT structures following the terrorist act in the Unites States in September 2011 -- The thesis presents an analysis of the AML regulations and the challenges that national governments and the international community face when combating money laundering -- The main research question is: Is the current international anti-money laundering regime sufficiently robust to effectively control and limit the phenomenon of international money laundering? -- This report explains the negative effects of money laundering to the economies of countries, the international trend-setters of the AML regulations and the challenges faced during the implementation of AML policies -- After properly studying the literature, there seems to be major challenge during the implementation of the AML regulations making money laundering a pressing issue in both developing and developed countries -- To facilitate the implementation of AML framework, nations should create a framework for exchange of information -- As much as it’s a challenge, there is need for evaluation of the effectiveness of the AML structure particularly due to the changes providing new techniques for money laundering

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    Authors: Blanco Cordero, Isidoro;

    [ES] El blanqueo de capitales es un fenómeno delictivo ligado a la delincuencia organizada. Las organizaciones criminales obtienen enormes beneficios de los diversos tráficos, y para disfrutar de estas ganancias deben blanquear su origen delictivo, lo que consiguen a través de diferentes medios. En Europa se está llevando a cabo una importante labor para luchar contra este fenómeno. Así, el presente trabajo examina la intervención de la Unión Europea en el marco de las iniciativas internacionales en la materia, explicando la estrategia contra el blanqueo de capitales a través del análisis de la Directiva 91/308/CEE sobre prevención de la utilización del sistema financiero para el blanqueo de capitales de 1991. [FR] Le blanchiment d’argent est un phénomène délictueux lié à la délinquance organisée. Les organisations criminelles obtiennent des bénéfices énormes des divers trafics, et pour jouir de ces profits ils doivent blanchir leur origine délictueuse, ce qui obtiennent à travers différents moyens. En Europe on mène à bien une importante tâche pour combattre ce phénomène. Ainsi, ce travail examine l’intervention de l’Union Européenne dans le cadre des initiatives internationales dans la matière, en expliquant la stratégie contre le blanchiment d’argent à travers l’analyse de la Directive 91/308/CEE sur la prévention de l’utilisation du système financier pour le blanchiment d’argent de 1991. [EN] The money laundering is a criminal phenomenon related to the organized crime. The criminal organizations obtain enormous benefits by the diverse traffics, and to own these gains they must launder its criminal origin through different means. In Europe an important work is being carried out to fight against this phenomenon. Thus, the present work examines the intervention of the European Union within the framework of the international initiatives in the matter, explaining the strategy against the money laundering through the analysis of the Directive 91/308/CEE (OJ L 166, 28.6.1991) on prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering. [ES] Delitugintza antolatuari loturiko irudia dugu kapital zuriketa. Antolaketa kriminalek onura izugarriak izaten dituzte trafiko ezberdinetatik, eta etekin hauetaz gozatzeko oinarri deliktiboa gorde beharrean aurkitzen dira, guzti hori bide ezberdinetatik lortzen dute. Hau hala izanik, lan honek Europar Batasunaren eskuhartzea aztertzen du. Guzti hori, 1991. urteko kapital zuriketaren delitu-egintzak aurrezaintzeko 91/308/CEE zuzentaraua aztertuaz egiten da.

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    Authors: Miguel Ángel Cano-Paños;

    RESUMEN. Desde hace unos años han proliferado en España grupos y organizaciones dedicadas sobre todo a la producción, custodia y tráfico de drogas ilegales. Su peculiaridad es que son estructuras opacas y endogámicas unidas por lazos familiares o étnicos, por lo cual se conocen con el término de "clanes familiares". A pesar del aumento de la presión policial, dichas estructuras siguen actuando con unos destacados márgenes de impunidad y un considerable beneficio económico. Así, este artículo, que constituye la primera parte de un extenso trabajo de investigación, se dedica a analizar las características de estos clanes familiares en el Campo de Gibraltar y en Granada, sus actividades delictivas, así como los distintos factores que han dado lugar a su nacimiento y consolidación en territorio español. ABSTRACT. Groups and organizations dedicated mainly to the production, custody, and trafficking of illegal drugs have proliferated in Spain in recent years. Their distinctiveness is that they are opaque and endogamous structures united by family or ethnic ties, therefore, known as "family clans." Despite increased police pressure, these structures continue to operate with significant margins of impunity and considerable economic benefit. Thus, this article, which is the first part of a broader research, analyzes these family clans' characteristics in the Campo de Gibraltar and Granada, their criminal activities, and the different factors that have led to their birth and consolidation in Spanish territory.

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    Revista Científica General José María Córdova
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    Revista Científica General José María Córdova
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      Revista Científica General José María Córdova
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      Revista Científica General José María Córdova
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
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